Location: Agroecosystem Management Research
2012 Annual Report
Sub-objective 1A. Identify stimuli that influence fly orientation and distribution. Sub-objective 1B. Develop a push-pull strategy utilizing identified attractants and repellents as components to manage flies.
Objective 2. Refine the application of larval control of stable flies by studying maggot distribution, manipulation of larval habitat, and geographic extent of control required.
Sub-objective 2A. Examine the causes for clumped distribution of maggots within a breeding site. Sub-objective 2B. Examine modification of soil microflora to reduce larval stable fly populations in concentrated breeding habitats. Sub-objective 2C. Determine effective radius of larval control required to see reduction below economic threshold on an individual property.
The purpose of this project is to develop tools for reducing the impact of stable flies on livestock production. Three entomologists are assigned to this project, each supported by a full time research technician and one or two part time students. These scientists are members of the Agroecosystem Management Research Unit (AMRU). The AMRU is a diverse research unit with soil scientists, agronomist, agricultural engineer, and microbiologists completing the staff. The scientists assigned to this project interact with co-workers having expertise in spatial statistics, soil chemistry and physics, soil microbial ecology, and chemical synthesis and formulation to accomplish the mission of the unit.
Larval functional morphology. The ultrastructure of the larval integument was examined with scanning electron microscopy. The morphology, localization, and density of receptor structures were characterized. The morphology, cytology, and physiological function of distinct regions of the larval digestive system were characterized. These studies contribute to understanding how stable fly larvae orient themselves in their environment and locate suitable microhabitats (Subobjective 2a).
Larval community ecology. Studies to assess the microbial community profile and function in natural larval substrates were initiated. Eleven larval habitat types from three locations were sampled weekly. Stable fly larvae were dissected and examined for symbiotic organisms. Several symbionts were observed and we are currently working on isolating, characterizing, and culturing those organisms. Metagenomic analyses of larvae and substrates will be performed. Pupae are being isolated and monitored for the emergence of parasitic wasps and beetles. Stable fly larvae are dependent upon the microbial community in their habitats for nutritional resources. Understanding microbial community structure of substrates suitable and unsuitable for larval development will permit modifications favoring the unsuitable condition (Subobjective 2b). Studies are continuing on the use of Insect Growth Regulators for the control of stable flies in larval developmental sites.
Adult phenology. Seasonal variation of adult stable fly size was examined. Size was correlated with population level trends. Larger flies were collected when populations were increasing compared with those collected when populations were decreasing. This indicates that nutritional resources of larval developmental sites have a role in controlling population levels (Subobjective 2b). Adult stable fly monitoring programs continue at the Meat Animal Research Center (Clay County, Nebraska), second year, and Agricultural Research and Development Center (Saunders County, Nebraska), twelfth year. Mark-Release-Recapture studies to evaluate the effects physiological age on dispersal were completed and studies on the effects of landscape features were initiated (Subobjective 2c).
Doud, C.W., Taylor, D.B., Zurek, L. 2012. Dewatered sewage biosolids provide a productive larval habitat for stable flies and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae). Journal of Medical Entomology. 49(2):286-292. DOI: HTTP://DX.DOI.ORG/10.1603/ME11158. Wienhold, B.J., Taylor, D.B. 2012. Substrate properties of stable fly (Dipera: Muscidae) developmental sites associated with round bale hay feeding sites in Eastern Nebraska. Journal of Environmental Entomology. 41:213-221. Taylor, D.B., Friesen, K.M., Zhu, J.J., Sievert, K. 2012. Efficacy of cyromazine to control immature stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in winter hay feeding sites. Journal of Economic Entomology. 105(2):726-731. Friesen, K.M., Johnson, G.D. 2012. Reproductive potential of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) fed cattle, chicken, or horse blood. Journal of Medical Entomology. 49(3):461-466. Taylor, D.B., Moon, R.D., Mark, D.R. 2012. Economic impact of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on dairy and beef cattle production. Journal of Medical Entomology. 49(1):198-209. DOI: HTTP://DX.DOI.ORG/10.1603/ME10050. Zhu, J.J., Li, A.Y., Pritchard, S., Tangtrakulwanich, K., Baxendale, F.P., Brewer, G. 2011. Contact and fumigant toxicity of a botanical-based feeding deterrent of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 59:10394-10400. DOI: DX.DOI.ORG/10.1021/JF2016122. Behrens, N.S., Zhu, J.J., Coats, J.R. 2012. Pan trapping soybean aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) using attractants. Journal of Economic Entomology. 105(3):890-895. DOI: 10.1603/EC11102. Zhu, J.J. 2012. Contact and spatial repellency from catnip essential oil, Nepeta cataria, against stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, and other filth flies. In: Paluch, G.E., Coats, J.R., editors. Recent Developments in Invertebrate Repellents. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society. ACS Symposium Series Vol. 1090. p. 79-96. Zhu, J.J., Berkebile, D.R., Dunlap, C.A., Zhang, A., Boxler, D., Tangtrakulwanich, K., Behle, R.W., Baxendale, F., Brewer, G. 2012. Nepetalactones from essential oil of Nepeta cataria represent a stable fly feeding and oviposition repellent. Medical and Veterinary Entomology. 26:131-138. DOI: 10.1111/J.1365-2915.2011.00972.X.