Location: Agroecosystem Management Research
2011 Annual Report
Sub-objective 1A. Identify stimuli that influence fly orientation and distribution. Sub-objective 1B. Develop a push-pull strategy utilizing identified attractants and repellents as components to manage flies.
Objective 2. Refine the application of larval control of stable flies by studying maggot distribution, manipulation of larval habitat, and geographic extent of control required.
Sub-objective 2A. Examine the causes for clumped distribution of maggots within a breeding site. Sub-objective 2B. Examine modification of soil microflora to reduce larval stable fly populations in concentrated breeding habitats. Sub-objective 2C. Determine effective radius of larval control required to see reduction below economic threshold on an individual property.
The purpose of this project is to develop tools for reducing the impact of stable flies on livestock production. Three entomologists are assigned to this project, each supported by a full time research technician and one or two part time students. These scientists are members of the Agroecosystem Management Research Unit (AMRU). The AMRU is a diverse research unit with soil scientists, agronomist, agricultural engineer, and microbiologists completing the staff. The scientists assigned to this project interact with co-workers having expertise in spatial statistics, soil chemistry and physics, soil microbial ecology, and chemical synthesis and formulation to accomplish the mission of the unit.
Microbial communities in natural stable fly developmental substrates. Studies were initiated to examine microbial succession in stable fly developmental habitats and associate changes in microbial communities with stable fly phenology. Preliminary results indicate that enteric bacteria predominate during the decomposition stages when immature stable fly populations are highest. Relative numbers of enteric bacteria and immature stable fly density decrease as the substrate decomposes. These studies are on going.
Stable fly dispersal. Results of mark-release-recapture studies conducted in 2010 indicated that adult stable fly survival and dispersal were highest in June and then both decreased in July and further decreased in August. Young, unfed flies were more likely to be recaptured than were older flies that had fed on sugar or blood prior to release. Although still in progress, replication of that study in 2011 has substantiated those results thus far. The mean time from release to recapture was 1.8 days and 90% of the recaptured flies were collected in the first 2 days after release. Half of the recaptured flies were collected more than 2.3 kilometers from their release point.
Control of stable flies in their developmental sites. The efficacy of an insect growth regulator, Cyromazine, for controlling stable flies in winter hay feeding sites was evaluated. When a granular formulation was applied at the rate of 0.5 g of active ingredient per meter-square, stable fly adult emergence was reduced by more than 90%. Stable fly emergence from the treated sites was reduced for at least 8 weeks.
Zhu, J.J., Dunlap, C.A., Behle, R.W., Berkebile, D.R., Wienhold, B.J. 2010. Repellency of a wax-based catnip-oil formulation against stable flies. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 58:12320-12326. DOI: 10.1021/jf102811k. Taylor, D.B., Berkebile, D.R. 2011. Phenology of stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae in round bale hay feeding sites in Eastern Nebraska. Environmental Entomology. 40: 184-193. Schole, L.A., Taylor, D.B., Brink, D.R., Hanford, K.J. 2011. Use of modified cages attached to growing calves to measure the effect of stable flies on dry matter intake and digestibility, and defensive movements. Professional Animal Scientist. 27(2):133-140. Zhu, J.J. 2010. Infochemical-tritrophic interactions of soybean aphids-host plants-natural enemies and their practical applications in pest management. In: Kang, T-X., Liu, L., editors. Recent Advancements in Entomological Research: From Molecular Biology to Pest Management. 1st edition. Beijing, China: Higher Education Press; Springer (joint publication). p. 114-120. ISBN: 978-3-642-17814-6. Available: DOI: 10.2783/b190-001-010-0010-x Tangtrakulwanich, K., Chen, H., Baxendale, F., Brewer, G., Zhu, J.J. 2011. Characterization of olfactory sensilla of Stomoxys calcitrans and electrophysiological responses to odorant compounds associated with hosts and oviposition media. Medical and Veterinary Entomology. (25):327-336. Available: doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2915.2011.00946.x.