2012 Annual Report
2. Develop a standard method for processing fermented noni juice.
Noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia) are used to produce fermented juice that often varies in chemical, physical, microbial, and medicinal properties. We completed chemical analyses of noni juice sugars, organic acids, and ethanol concentrations over 28 days of fermentation using liquid chromatography. The results reveal fermentation end-points for standardizing the processing of noni juice. Also, the antifungal properties of pasteurized (85 ºC, 3 min) noni juice exudate were determined in spot-plate bioassays against several fungal plant pathogens of tropical fruit crops. In bioassays of fresh or fermented noni juice, antifungal activity was absent in juice with 5% soluble solids (TSS). However, fermented noni juice with 7% TSS or higher completely inhibited spore germination of five plant fungal pathogens (Lasmenia sp., Colletotrichum acutatum, C. gloeosporioides, Gliocephalotrichum bulbilium, G. simplex). In related research, large volumes of noni juice were prepared for partitioning with n-butanol and ethyl acetate. Previously, our collaborators reported that fermented noni juice demonstrated antitumor activity, and that the n-butanol and ethyl acetate fractions contained active components. The collected partitions were further fractionated into five n-butanol and eight ethyl acetate subfractions to identify specific subfractions with antitumor activity in bioassays and mice models by collaborators. The work in the Trust Agreement will contribute directly to objective 2 of the parent project to develop new or improved postharvest treatments and enhance product value.