2012 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416):
The over-arching goal of this project is to develop new knowledge to increase the value of underutilized seafood processing byproducts as food and feed ingredients in a sustainable manner. This will be achieved by accomplishing the three listed objectives.
1. Develop new and improved feed ingredients and high value human food products using fish processing co-products.
2. Develop economical processes and methods for the collection, stabilization and storage of raw seafood byproducts to optimize their chemical, nutritional, and physical qualities for uses including food and feed ingredients, fertilizers and bio-chemicals.
3. Develop ingredients from fish processing co-products that meet larval and stage specific physiological requirements of marine fish when used in modern dietary formulations.
1b.Approach (from AD-416):
Fractions prepared from pollock and salmon byproducts such as fish meals, hydrolysates and stick water will be identified that promote growth in targeted aquaculture species fed plant protein based diets. Also, aquaculture ingredients from fish byproducts such as enriched fatty acid and phospholipid fractions will be identified that increase performance in targeted species. A continuous system for purifying and stabilizing salmon and pollock oils extracted from byproducts will be developed that can be used in smaller rural processing plants. Machine vision systems will be developed that can identify individual byproduct components such as liver and then efficiently separate the parts for further processing or packaging. Processes will be developed that improve the functional properties of fish skin gelatin films and other gelatin products in collaboration with scientists at WRRC in Albany, CA. Constituents of testes and other meals that positively affect shrimp and fish growth will be identified for use as aquaculture ingredients. The minimum levels of dietary omega 3 fatty acids required to sustain good growth and health of trout at different life stages will be determined. Economic analyses of the cost effectiveness of different methods of handling seafood processing byproducts will be provided to stakeholders. Collaborative studies between ARS and University of Alaska scientists will be conducted in the pilot plant and laboratories in Kodiak and Fairbanks, AK, and feeding trials will be conducted at the University of Idaho and the Oceanic Institute in Hawaii.
Per the FY2012 Consolidated Appropriations Act (H.R. 2112) passed
by Congress and signed by the President on November 18, 2011, the Subarctic Agricultural Research Unit has been terminated. Thus new research was stopped early in the fiscal year and only data analysis and writing proceeded through the closure process. Over the life of the entire project, however, this project was very productive and reached many achievements including:.
1)New methods were developed to fractionate waste stream byproducts to identify nutritional sources for fish meals, including low molecular weight nitrogen compounds in stick water;.
2)New aquaculture feed ingredients were specifically designed and developed to meet specific physiological requirements of cultured species which included phospholipid enriched material from fishery byproducts;.
3)New technologies were developed for utilizing seafood-processing byproducts for human food ingredients, including studies on uv cross-linking of gelatins from fin fish and chondroitin sulfate contents of salmon head fractions; .
4)Image analysis studies were also completed to aid in weight prediction of Pollack roe and in predicting the weight of different salmon species; and.
5)The economic effectiveness for different methods of handling seafood processing byproducts was determined, and an economic feasibility analysis was completed on a low cost method of making protein and oils from salmon heads using equipment available in many small salmon processing facilities.
Yin, H., Wan, Y., Huang, J., Sathivel, S., Bechtel, P.J. 2011. Effects of oil extraction methods on physical and chemical properties of red salmon oils (Oncorhynchus nerka). Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 88(10):1641-1648. DOI 10.1007/s11746-011-1824-x..
Wu, T.H., Bechtel, P.J. 2012. Screening for low molecular weight compounds in fish meal solubles by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Food Chemistry. 130(3):739-745.
Stine, J.J., Pedersen, L., Smiley, S., Bechtel, P.J. 2012. Recovery and utilization of protein derived from surimi wash-water. Journal of Food Quality. DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-4557.2011.00424.x.
Estrada, J.D., Boeneke, C., Bechtel, P.J., Sathivel, S. 2011. Developing a strawberry yogurt fortified with marine fish oil. Journal of Dairy Science. 94(12):5760-5769.
Bower, C.K., Hietala, K.A., Delaca, T.C. 2011. Bacterial preservation of pink salmon using potatoes as a carbohydrate source. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 35(6):822-831.
Desantos, F.A., Bechtel, P.J., Smiley, S., Brewer, M.S. 2010. Effect of Inclusion of Salmon Roe on Characteristics of Salmon Baby Food Products. Journal of Food Science. 75:S231-236.
Marsh, L., Bechtel, P.J. 2012. Waste (By-Product) Utilization. In: Granata, L.A., Flick, G.J., Martin, R.E., editors. The Seafood Industry: Species, Products, Processing, and Safety. 2nd edition. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 128-135.
Smiley, S., Bechtel, P.J. 2011. Fisheries. In: Duffy, A., Duffy, L., Kelly, J., Erickson, K., editors. Land and Environment in the North. Fairbanks: Center for Cross-Cultural Studies, University of Alaska. p. 59-85.
Bechtel, P.J., Smiley, S. 2010. A Sustainable Future: Fish Processing Byproducts. Alaska Sea Grant, University of Alaska Fairbanks. 340 pp.
Wan, Y., Sathivel, S., Stine, J.J., Bechtel, P.J. 2011. Physical and nutritional properties of baby food containing added red salmon oil (Oncorhynchus nerka) and microencapsulated red salmon oil. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 89(4):727-734..
Ju, Z., Forster, I., Dominy, W., Smiley, S., Bechtel, P.J. 2012. Evaluation of skate meal and sablefish viscera meal as fish meal replacement in diets for Pacific threadfin (Polydactylus saxfilis). Aquaculture Research. 2012:1-9.