DEVELOPMENT OF THE PIG AS A SECOND SPECIES MODEL FOR TESTING VACCINES AND ADJUVANTS
Animal Parasitic Diseases
2011 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
Identify functional genetic variations that modulate the immune responses to swine mucosal pathogens; and determine the genetic profiles of ”good responders” to swine vaccines.
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
Out-bred commercial breeds of swine will be vaccinated with recombinant products from bacterial and viral pathogens by various routes including mucosal exposure with novel and conventional adjuvants and vaccine platforms. Local and systemic responses to vaccination will be evaluated by measuring antigen specific antibody isotype responses in the serum, and eye, lung, and intestinal fluids, and local and whole blood changes in cytokine and chemokine biomarkers by gene expression. This information will be used by both ARS and the COOPERATOR to jointly develop novel adaptive and acquired immune readout systems to evaluate vaccine efficacy as it applies to swine directly and as a second species for testing important new vaccine constructs.
A prototype was established to immunized newborn and recently weaned pigs with soluble protein antigens with and without adjuvant at different sites. Immunization included exposure of the conjunctiva, per os, and intradermal sensitization and oral challenge with the sensitizing antigen. The skin site was most immunogenic for the induction of specific antibody isotypes, but gene expression showed that regional lymph nodes responded to different degrees relative to the response in the intestinal mesenteric lymph nodes following the oral challenge with antigen.