Location: Environmental Management Research
2011 Annual Report
The second component will be conducted in a production system to determine MP by both the pigs and the housing systems. Two swine houses located at the USMARC will be used for these studies. Air temperature, RH, and CO**2** concentration of both inside and outside will be recorded at 15-min intervals for a 24 hour period at least one time a week for the duration of the production cycle. Prior to initiation of the experiment each of the exhaust ventilation fans will be calibrated in-situ at various static pressures to develop the actual fan performance curves. Operational status of each exhaust fan will be monitored continuously.
THP and MP data will be fitted to regression models each for barrows and gilts with main effects of temperature and body weight, using appropriate interaction, linear, and quadratic terms.
The heat and moisture production (HMP) data currently being used for ventilation design and environmental control of animal facilities are mostly 30 to 50 years old. Fifty years ago, pigs were almost exclusively raised outdoors; today, pigs are predominantly raised indoors to improve food safety, manure management, handling ease, animal well-being, and performance. Raising pigs indoors requires extensive engineering and animal expertise. Many years of research have been dedicated to building design and understanding the interaction between the building and animals. Important criteria in facility design are animal HMP. An animal’s heat production (HP) is a product of the inefficiencies related to breakdown and use of food stuffs. HP is significantly influenced by genetics, nutrition, and thermal environment.
Heat and moisture production rates are important criteria in building design. These HMP values provide the basis of design capacity for fans and heaters to control temperature and moisture in buildings. Temperature and humidity control are important, not only to maximize animal well-being and production, but also to prolong the life of the structure. Environmental temperature and animal size effects on HMP values are documented in published standards. A grant was received from ASHRAE (American Society for Heating Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers) to conduct a series for studies to update the swine HMP values which will ultimately replace the HMP values that are currently published in the standards book.
The grant was written in conjunction with Iowa State University (ISU), to support four calorimeter laboratory studies, with the objective of collecting total heat production (THP) from both barrows and gilts ranging in size from nursery age pigs through slaughter weight. In addition, the grant will also support a series of field measurements which will include a range of ages from farrowing, nursery, finishing, and gestating. The objective of the field measurement is to collect field scale moisture production and verify THP collected during the calorimeter laboratory studies.
ISU has visited the site on four occasions. We have installed instruments and have calibrated the fans in the swine facility. ISU has provided expertise to install instruments, calibrate fans, and wrote the LABview program to collect all of the environmental data for the project. The ISU scientist has provided assistance on summarizing and analyzing the data.
ADODR monitoring is done through phone calls, e-mail, and site visits.