2010 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
The Ogallala Aquifer in western Kansas and the Texas High Plains is declining at an unacceptable rate. Continued investments are needed in improved irrigation technologies, irrigation management, and agronomic research concerning water use efficiency, enhanced integrated cropping systems that reduce dependence on groundwater while sustaining profitability, and improved hydrological assessments of water availability to ensure the sustainability of rural communities in this region. Socioeconomic considerations, wise public policy regarding water rights, and public outreach are also needed to sustain these communities. Water availability and quality issues will affect the sustainability of agriculture, the socioeconomic structure of communities, and biodiversity and environmental quality of the landscape. The seven overall objectives of the program are to:
1. Improve water management, both irrigation and precipitation, within existing and emerging cropping systems, that can decrease dependence on groundwater resources at scales ranging from a farm to the entire region.
2. Improve the design, performance, and management of irrigation practices and systems.
3. Develop common methodologies for assessing current and future groundwater resource capabilities for the Ogallala Aquifer, and the interrelationships with future climate forecasts, cropping patterns, and water use policies and regulations.
4. Explore opportunities to reduce the dependence on groundwater resources by developing and evaluating integrated crop and livestock systems that are used in conjunction with improved irrigation practices.
5. Develop and evaluate water saving technologies, including wastewater reuse, for concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) and industries that process agricultural commodities.
6. Estimate the economic impacts of various water management activities and strategies at the farm, water district, and regional scales.
7. Develop a comprehensive data and information programs for policy makers, farmers, water professionals, and youth with respect to the Ogallala Aquifer and its importance and use.
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
This water management research project is a cooperative effort between two ARS laboratories (Bushland and Lubbock, Texas) and four universities located in the Southern Great Plains (Kansas State University, Texas A&M University, Texas Tech University, and West Texas A&M University). A research team of approximately 85 engineers and scientists has been assembled to address the problems associated with the decline of the Ogallala Aquifer in western Kansas and the Texas High Plains. Rural communities depend on sustainable enterprises for their viability; therefore, it is important to provide a sound database for developing water conservation technologies and management practices, and equitable water policies. The project has seven (7) priority areas that contain subcomponents and additional research goals and tasks. The priority areas include:.
1)improved management of irrigation and precipitation;.
2)development of new irrigation technologies;.
3)development of data bases and models to describe regional hydrology and climatology;.
4)the integration of crop, forage, and livestock production systems;.
5)development of new technologies to reduce water use in animal feeding operations;.
6)economic assessments of water management strategies; and.
7)development of training and educational materials to enhance the knowledge base of producers, water professionals, and policy makers. The developed research approach is a multi-tasked, multi-focused plan to address the complex issues related to insuring the sustainability of rural communities in western Kansas and Texas High Plains that utilize the water resources of the Ogallala Aquifer.
KSU scientists joined with ARS scientists (Bushland and Lubbock), and scientists from Texas Tech University, Texas A&M University, and West Texas A&M University to conduct these studies.
This agreement was established in Sep. 2009 to continue on-going collaborative research conducted under 6209-13000-013-07S, New Water Technologies to Sustain Rural Economies-KSU.
Projects funded with FY2009 funds and started in FY2010 include: (1) Enhancing the Productivity and Water Use Efficiency of Sorghum; (2) Use of the Stay Green Tool to Assess Superior Sorghum Germplasm Over a Wide Geographic Region; (3) Defining Management Protocols to Minimize Early Season Drought Season in Crops Grown with Subsurface Drip Irrigation; (4) Socio-Economic Implication of Groundwater Use in the Southern High Plains; (5) Defining the Effects of Irrigation on Soil Carbon Levels in No-Till Farming; (6) Determining the Water Use Efficiency and Productivity of Annual Forages; (7) Defining Crop Rotations that Enhance Rainfall Capture and use by Crops; (8) Evaluating the Grain Yields and Economics of Dryland Crops Grown Under Alternative Planting Geometries; and (9) Promoting the Implications of Water Policy Changes to Stakeholders in Southwest Kansas. Annual reports from the principal investigators of these projects indicate that substantial progress was made this year.
The ADODR and lead investigators are in regular contact via emails, teleconferences, face-to-face meetings, and at an annual progress workshop/conference. The ADODR and the three other members of the ARS leadership team have regular interactions with the leadership from the four cooperating universities, including KSU.