2010 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
1. Develop new and improved feed ingredients and high value human food products using fish processing co-products.
2. Develop economical processes and methods for the collection, stabilization and storage of raw seafood byproducts to optimize their chemical, nutritional, and physical qualities for uses including food and feed ingredients, fertilizers and bio-chemicals.
3. Develop ingredients from fish processing co-products that meet larval and stage specific physiological requirements of marine fish when used in modern dietary formulations. Documents SCA with the University of Alaska Fairbanks.
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
USDA ARS in cooperation with UAF, SFOS and their team of scientists at University of Idaho (UI) and the Oceanic Institute (OI) in Hawaii will address the three objectives listed above. This research project focuses on increasing the value of Alaska seafood processing byproducts through the development of scientific information and methods required to use these materials as food and feed ingredients. The over-arching goal of this project is to develop new knowledge to increase the value of underutilized byproducts as food and feed ingredients in a sustainable manner. Individual projects to be investigated are listed below and more detail can be found in the attachment. -Sterol enriched extract from dried salmon testes meal will be extracted and evaluated as a growth promoter in aquaculture species. Nucleotide enriched extracts from dried salmon testes meal will be evaluated as an immune system stimulator in aquaculture species. -Byproducts from the large biomass of giant grenadier (Albatrossia pectoralis) will be chemically characterized and components evaluated as potential feed and food ingredients. -Micro and macro mineral content in fish bone from different marine species harvested in Alaska will be determined and evaluated for use as feed and food ingredients. -Dried salmon, cod, sablefish and pollock heads will be evaluated for export and drying kinetics determined. -Waxy ester content in Alaska fish processing byproducts and commercial fish oils will be evaluated. -The oil winterization process will be evaluated as a purification method for salmon and Pollock oils. -Comparisons will be undertaken to evaluate oil quality and yield using three inexpensive methods of extracting oil from salmon heads. -A simplified method of making hydrolysates from salmon head will be developed and the protein and oil components characterized. -Fractionate then analyze stickwater fractions for appetite enhancement and attractant properties. -Develop a method to generate a pH gradient in conducting solutions for use in the recovery of wash water and stickwater proteins. -Effects of storage temperature on sablefish and halibut byproduct quality will be determined. -Aquaculture trials with marine and fresh water fish will evaluate pollock head hydrolysates (two different degrees of hydrolysis). -Potassium diformate will be evaluated as a preservative for fish meals, and its effects on growth on warm water species of fish and shrimp evaluated. -Effects of fish meal and fish oil storage on growth and development of shrimp will be determined. -A study will be conducted using trout to evaluate whether feeding a blend of pollock oil and canola oil is equivalent to employing a phase-feeding schedule of canola oil followed by a finishing diet containing pollock oil. -Studies will be conducted to evaluate pollock oil and vegetable oil blends on fish and shrimp performance and edible tissue fatty acid levels. -Zebrafish will be used in feeding trials and the focus will be on reproductive performance associated with selected dietary products, such as testes meal and fish oil and on expression of genes associated with reproduction. Formerly 5341-31410-003-17S (12/09).
This collaboration was monitored through phone calls and monthly visits to Kodiak AK.
This research enhances the utilization of Alaska fish processing byproducts as aquaculture feed and food ingredients and also improved processing of byproducts in accordance with ARS project objectives #1,#2, #3.
Studies were completed by ARS in Fairbanks and University of Alaska-Fairbanks (UAF) scientist on persistent organic pollutants in Alaska byproducts. We screened ingredients made from Alaska byproducts. Results indicated that organo-chlorine pesticides and PCBs were below limits (0.8 ppb for DDE and 0.4 ppb for PCBs). These results showed that Alaska byproducts are very low in persistent organic pollutants.
Scientist at the Oceanic Institute fed Pacific white shrimp a series of Alaskan fish processing byproduct meals made by UAF and ARS scientist. Results showed byproduct meals can be effective in stimulating shrimp to increase their feed consumption and these stimulatory effects depend on inclusion levels. This offers a mechanism to remedy reduced shrimp growth due to plant-based diets by stimulating increased feed consumption rates with Alaskan byproduct meals.
University of Idaho scientist fed rainbow trout dried Alaskan fish bones prepared by UAF and ARS scientists as a dietary phosphorus source. Project scientists evaluated the physical and chemical properties of bone meals derived from Alaska pollock processing byproducts. Results showed that fish bone meals were inferior to dicalcium phosphate as dietary phosphorus sources for rainbow trout and suggest that the bone meals may require additional processing to increase phosphorus bio-availability. In another study, the effects of incorporating polyunsaturated Alaskan fish oils in diets for rainbow trout predominantly containing plant oils were evaluated. Alaska pollock and rockfish oils were effective in increasing long chain omega-3 fatty acid levels in trout fillets.
Marine finfish from Alaskan waters have surprisingly high levels of the polyunsaturated fatty acids EPA and DHA in their lipid pool. Tissues rich in phospholipids were identified in Alaskan cold water marine fish processing byproducts. Methods of enrichment via fractionation were evaluated including membrane filtration systems as well as winterization. Subsequent to fractionation, phospholipid fatty acids were isolated as fatty acid methyl esters and analyzed.
Enzyme hydrolysis offers a relatively inexpensive method to turn the byproducts of seafood processing into high quality protein meals and oils. We have developed a method for ascertaining the progress of hydrolysis with processing byproducts. An economic evaluation of the hydrolysis process has been initiated. A study has been initiated by UAF and ARS scientist in Fairbanks to use machine vision to identify and separate salmon livers from other viscera components during fish processing.