2011 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
The nursery and landscape maintenance industry is the most important segment of agriculture in many areas. Nursery crops provide high-value alternatives to field crops where land prices require a high return. There is increasing interest in the aesthetic and economic value of landscapes that increase quality of life and property values. There is a need to increase the diversity of plant materials in landscapes to realize their full environmental benefit. The nursery industry must continue to offer new and improved ornamental plants to retain economic viability. The landscape maintenance industry must offer clientele services that provide better environmental stewardship. Objective 1: Expand, establish, maintain, trial, document, and interpret living collections of woody and herbaceous landscape ornamentals with high aesthetic, scientific, and educational value, and that reflect current relevant ARS horticultural research programs as appropriate; Objective 2: Incorporate optimal environmentally-sound horticultural practices that increase overall garden management efficiency, and develop integrated pest management strategies and technologies for ornamental plants, especially those suited to the environment of the national capital; Objective 3: Disseminate scientific and practical information to floral and nursery crop industries, public gardens, the increasing number of visitors to the U.S. National Arboretum and its web site, and the general public interested in gardening; Objective 4: Distribute to and exchange with the horticulture industry and collections new and unusual landscape plants.
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
A unified Collections Policy will be developed to provide a framework for identifying the objectives of each plant collection and display garden on the campus of the USNA. Existing collections will then need to be evaluated against this collection policy and a multi-year Plant Acquisition Plan will be developed for each collection to guide development. New ornamental plants will be procured from industry leaders in ornamental plant introduction efforts. Existing Glenn Dale azaleas in the holdings of the Azalea Collection will be propagated and used to replace Glenn Dale azaleas of unknown identity. Native flora will be collected. The Flowering Tree Collection, Holly Magnolia Collection, Conifer Collection and collections of penjing in the National Bonsai and Penjing Museum will be augmented by incorporating a wider variety of plants. The current Power Plants exhibit site will be used to highlight ARS accomplishments. Staff will continue to utilize IPM in management of their collections and will incorporate other technologies such as solar power, green roofs, rain gardens, and water wise gardens as funds allow. Program ideas will be developed in collaboration with the Educational Programs Coordinator. Plants with superior landscape attributes within existing collections will be propagated for distribution and evaluation in collaboration with Floral and Nursery Plant Research Unit efforts.
Management of Invasive Plant Species. Controlling invasive plants continues to be a pressing issue on the grounds of the U.S. National Arboretum. Invasive species were treated on several parcels throughout the arboretum. Follow up work is also taking place to treat areas that have been previously treated. Control of native plants is important to preservation of germplasm in collections by preventing infestation with invasive plants. This work helps to preserve existing germplasm in the gardens and collections of the USNA, protects woodland and meadow habitats on the grounds from degradation, and provides a model for management of invasive plants that may be useful for other land managers.
Domestic Collections of Wild Germplasm. Several trips in the Piedmont region were completed to expand holdings of native germplasm, to increase the number of wild-collected accessions held in the Fern Valley Native Plant Collection.
Evaluation of germplasm. Financial support from the Friends of the National Arboretum has allowed for the hire of a plant propagation intern to support the increase of plants in preparation for distribution and evaluation, and to protect germplasm holdings that may have diminished due to attrition. Several potential introductions have been propagated. Rare conifer and azalea cultivars have been propagated to secure germplasm. This germplasm may be of benefit to plant breeders and researchers.
Germplasm acquisition, distribution, and incorporation into collections. A major objective of the Gardens Unit is to enrich the living plant display collections at the U.S. National Arboretum by incorporating documented germplasm into these areas. Wild-collected native plant germplasm and conifer cultivars have been added to collections. This work will preserve genetic diversity within ornamental plants that can potentially aid in breeding and selection work.
Dissemination of plant information to the public. The nearly half a million visitors to the gardens and collections of the U.S. National Arboretum could potentially learn about the work of ARS. The Gardens Unit provides major input in increasing the quality and quantity of information on the Arboretum web site, and the web site now serves five million visitors annually. Many nursery firms and gardening sites are linking to our web site. Strong ties to the nursery industry have been established in the creation of the Introduction Garden. Virtual tours and a blog are being added to the site, and gardening information is being expanded. This work helps to create well-informed garden product consumers and increase interest in landscape plants to help maintain a strong domestic nursery production industry.
New Camellia ‘Anacostia’ introduced. Camellia ‘Anacostia’ which has been evaluated for many years in the Asian Collections was selected for its outstanding spring floral display, rich dark green foliage, and cold hardiness. It was introduced in collaboration with the Arboretum’s Floral and Nursery Plants Research Unit. This introduction has potential to allow more gardeners to grow spring flowering camellias in areas that are considered too cold for camellias.