2011 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
The mission of the Delta Obesity Prevention Research Unit is to conduct nutrition research to prevent obesity in at-risk, rural populations in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) of Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. The Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Delta OPRU is conducting a multi-component obesity prevention research project targeting at-risk rural populations. Components include: conducting a nutrition research project in rural Phillips County, Arkansas and the Lower Mississippi Delta that measures youth and adult caregivers' ability to adhere to the eating patterns as set forth in the Dietary Guidelines (DG) for Americans. Additionally, to conduct a multi-year research project to develop and assess the efficacy of an incremental adaptation and adoption of four DG, whose health impact was tested in the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and PREMIER: Lifestyles Intervention for Blood Pressure Control clinical trials, in promoting healthier eating and healthier weight in the LMD. These studies will provide a greater understanding of the rural minority populations sustaining healthy dietary patterns and lifestyles long term.
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
Our studies will focus on measuring the impact of adapting dietary menus and recipes to meet the Dietary Guidelines (DG) recommendations and DASH Dietary Patterns, analyzing 24-hour dietary recalls and/or Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ) of African American adult caregivers and rural youth. Collectively, these studies will permit the development and evaluation of a Delta DG Small Steps (Delta DGSS) Tool Kit that will be adapted to meet four DG and be culturally appropriate for use in the Delta.
Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls have been collected in Phillips County, AR, since 2007. These are summer day camp collections of African-American children in the towns of Marvell and Elaine. Data was collected at baseline (prior to the start of the camp) and at the completion of the camp in 2007. In subsequent years (2008 through 2010) a third data collection approximately one month following the end of camp collection was instituted.
In addition to providing datasets reflecting dietary intakes during the summer day camp, PBRC calculated Pyramid servings and Health Eating Index (HEI2005) scores and provided these to the Delta OPRU research team both as analytical datasets and as Word and PowerPoint presentations.
An additional task added to the dietary data collection was the participation in the project entitled "Dietary Guidelines – Small Steps" project. For this project, a main focus was to develop and implement appropriate menus focusing on fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and dairy,which would be acceptable to the residents of Phillips County, AR, and other Lower Delta Counties in Arkansas. PBRC Cooperator was tasked with menu development due to previous experiences in these rural areas in terms of data collection and also as a result of her role in developing the actual diets for the DASH feeding trial conducted at PBRC.
The responsibility of the PBRC Cooperator was to develop menus in a general manner that focus on the four food groups identified. The order of the development of the menus was:
1. Develop a base menu covering 21 days (3-week menu)
2. Focus the first menus developed on fruit (fruit servings bolded)
3. Focus the second set of menus developed on vegetables (vegetable servings bolded)
4. Focus the third set of menus on fruits and vegetables (these servings bolded)
5. Focus the fourth set of menus on whole grains (whole grains bolded)
6. Focus the fifth set of menus on milk (milk and dairy servings bolded)
Acceptability of the menus was determined by presenting the developed menus to the Community Advisory Committee (CAC) through focus groups. Feedback was assessed by the Delta OPRU research team.
Monitoring of cooperator's performance and adherence to conditions of the agreement was by: a site visit; quarterly reports consisting of budgetary material, quarterly conference calls for peer review of progress towards goals, objectives, and milestones, and review of publications and manuscripts in progress; and numerous conference calls and emails.