2010 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
The mission of the Delta Obesity Prevention Research Unit is to conduct nutrition research to prevent obesity in at-risk, rural populations in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) of Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. The Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Delta OPRU is conducting a multi-component obesity prevention research project targeting at-risk rural populations. Components include: conducting a nutrition research project in rural Phillips County, Arkansas and the Lower Mississippi Delta that measures youth and adult caregivers' ability to adhere to the eating patterns as set forth in the Dietary Guidelines (DG) for Americans. Additionally, to conduct a multi-year research project to develop and assess the efficacy of an incremental adaptation and adoption of four DG, whose health impact was tested in the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and PREMIER: Lifestyles Intervention for Blood Pressure Control clinical trials, in promoting healthier eating and healthier weight in the LMD. These studies will provide a greater understanding of the rural minority populations sustaining healthy dietary patterns and lifestyles long term.
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
Our studies will focus on measuring the impact of adapting dietary menus to meet the Dietary Guidelines (DG) recommendations, analyzing 24-hour dietary recalls and/or Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ) of African American rural youth and adult caregivers, and assessing the impact of increased physical activity in our research participants.
OBESITY PREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM
Dietary recalls (24-hour dietary recalls) have been collected in Phillips County, AR, since 2007. These are summer day camp collections of African-American children in the towns of Marvell and Elaine, Arkansas. These recalls were collected at baseline (prior to the start of the camp) and at the completion of the camp in 2007. Subsequent years (2008 and since) a third data collection approximately one month following the end of camp collection was instituted. This occurred when the FDA's National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) participated in the project, collecting blood samples for vitamin analysis on the children and adult guardians.
In addition to providing dietary datasets reflecting dietary intakes during the summer day camp dietary recall collection, Pennington Biomedical Research Center researchers calculated Pyramid servings and HEI 2005 dietary data and provided these to the Little Rock Delta Obesity Prevention Research Unit both as analytical datasets and as Word and PowerPoint presentations.
An additional task added to the dietary data collection was the participation in the project entitled "Dietary Guidelines – Small Steps" project. For this project, a main focus was to develop and implement appropriate menus focusing on fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and dairy that would be acceptable to the residents of Phillips County and other Lower Delta counties in Arkansas. Pennington Biomedical Research Center researchers were tasked with menu development due to previous experiences in these rural areas in terms of data collection and also as a result of their role in developing the actual diets for the DASH feeding trial conducted at Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Johns Hopkins, Duke, and the Brigham & Women's in Boston and NIH.
The responsibility of Pennington Biomedical Research Center is to develop menus in a general manner that focus on the four food groups identified. The development of the menus have encompassed: developing a base menu covering 21 days; focus the first menus developed on fruit; focus the second set of menus developed on vegetables; focus the third set of menus on fruits and vegetables; focus the fourth set of menus on whole grains; and focus the fifth set of menus on milk. Acceptability of the menus will be determined by presenting the developed menus to the community and awaiting feedback.
The ADODR monitors activities for the project by routine teleconferences and site visits.