2012 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416):
1) completion of a nursery trial initiated in 2008, which focuses on managing 1, 3-D emissions and pest control, and 2)testing and expanded demonstration of integrated alternatives to methyl bromide at commercial nurseries.
1b.Approach (from AD-416):
Nematode sampling will be completed and final nursery stock quality data will be analyzed. At harvest, soil and root samples will be collected and analyzed for the presence of parasitic nematodes. Analysis of the two nursery trials and two emission trials will be conducted and information transfered to interested stakeholders, scientists, and regulators via appropriate presentations, journal publications, and reports.
Established in support of objective #1 of the in-house project, which is to demonstrate alternatives to MB in key crop systems & regions dependent upon MB. The goals of this specific project were to complete two fumigant demonstration trials conducted in commercial grapevine and almond nurseries and expand upon perennial nursery herbicide research. During FY2012, research and outreach efforts focused on three issues limiting adoption of MB alternatives in perennial nurseries: the need for demonstration of alternatives in grower field trials, reducing fumigant emissions, and testing herbicides for supplemental weed control.
The large-plot fumigant demonstration plots established near Wasco, California, and Yuba City, California, in FY2010 were terminated in early FY2011. Quantitative data were not collected in these demonstration trials; however, the extension impact of these commercial scale plots (0.6 ha each) was dramatic for the growers involved. For the emissions work, a trial was conducted in cooperation with University of California and ARS researchers near Parlier, California, to evaluate pest control and fumigant emissions from reduced rate applications of MB alternatives applied with high barrier film. This experiment brought together various scientific disciplines to evaluate emissions as well as weed, pathogen, and nematode control with 1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin rates as low as 25% of normal use rates under standard HDPE film compared to totally impermeable film (TIF). Six herbicide screening trials were conducted in FY2011 in commercial almond nurseries near Oakdale (1), Yuba City (2), and Newcastle (2) to evaluate the performance and nursery stock safety of various herbicides including isoxaben, rimsulfuron, dithiopyr, penoxsulam, indaziflam, sulfosulfuron, and foramsulfuron.
During the review period, information from this project and related research was disseminated through scientific and extension channels. Scientific reports included a nursery fumigation paper published in Pest Management Science (Jhala et al. 2011), a nursery herbicide paper submitted to Hort Science (Abit and Hanson), and a five-year overview of nursery fumigation research submitted to California Agriculture (Hanson et al.). Additionally, five extension presentations and a field day tour on fumigant issues or nursery herbicides were made to stakeholders during the performance period. Finally, the information generated in this nursery project was used during the development of a template for a multi-state, multi-investigator outreach website tying back to the goals of the Pacific Area-Wide Program for Integrated Methyl Bromide Alternatives.