1a.Objectives (from AD-416):
The purpose of this agreement is to strengthen the collaborations between the Participants in areas of mutual interest through cooperative research programs and exchanges. To this end, the Participants agree jointly to explore and coordinate research activities of mutual interest which will be implemented by mutual understanding and in conformity with the regulations and policies of both Participants.
1b.Approach (from AD-416):
To facilitate the cooperative research effort(s) described herein, each Participant intends to assign such members of its staff to specific projects as may be mutually agreed upon, as well as aid in planning and developing projects of mutual interest.
Research collaborations with INRA continue to be strong and fruitful. EBCL maintained extensive research, teaching and extension-related contacts with INRA, CIRAD, and various other French research and plant protection organizations for targets of mutual interest. Joint research included biological and ecological research on olive fly parasitoids, invasive Asian longhorned beetles, whitetop and leafy spurge. Research collaborations also studied polyphenols that improve insulin function, including those from cinnamon and tea. Cooperators also worked to broaden the scope of fetal reprogramming during gestation that leads to intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) in swine and to develop a multi-trait extension of statistical methods for combining genotypes, phenotypes, and pedigrees known as the 1-step model for dairy cattle. Cooperation in aquaculture is generating a composite reference map of the rainbow trout genome by coordinating efforts to reduce costly redundancies and by using the same bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library derived from the Swanson rainbow trout clonal line and for evaluating the usefulness of SNP genotyping assays that are developed independently by the ARS and the INRA labs. Cooperators continue work on the development of Plum pox virus resistant transgenic plum varieties through the use of consumer friendly gene silencing constructs. INRA visiting scientists worked on erosion processes and impacts on soil and water quality. Cooperation also focused on understanding host-pathogen interactions between fungi in the class Dothideomycetes and their hosts in collaboration with the Joint Genome Institute of the U.S. Department of Energy. Joint efforts also focused on the use of C-glycoside ketohydrazone developed in our laboratory for the analysis of plant cell wall carbohydrates, with expected agricultural significance to the production of diverse biomass feedstocks. Critical work continues on reconstructing the invasion dynamics of western corn rootworm in North America, and assisting in determining the geographic source of ongoing introductions into Europe using genetic markers. Weed researchers at INRA and Morris, Minnesota, collaborated on a chapter for a book aimed at graduate students. ARS cooperates with INRA to look at the adoption of nitrogen and water management models for California vineyards. Research cooperation also addressed the intercontinental population structure on Eutypa lata in grape-growing regions of the world. ARS and INRA also collaborate on the impact of omega-3 fatty acids on lipoprotein structure and atherosclerotic prevention. In addition, INRA maintain a mirror of the complete GrainGenes database and website at http://grain.jouy.inra.fr. This activity assumes uninterrupted GraingGenes access and facilitates collaboration with European laboratories. Efficient access to maps of small grains crop genomes is critical to grain crop improvement.