2010 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
Through this collaborative interaction the parties intend to coordinate research efforts so as to develop and implement obesity prevention programs and to identify gene-nutrient interactions that have been linked to chronic diseases, which can be used to improve and protect public health.
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
This will be accomplished by developing obesity prevention research projects combining nutritional and lifestyle surveys, research interventions, with –omic technologies; collaborating in the use of research laboratories, research field sites, research volunteers, and designed research studies conducted or planned for implementation in the rural areas of Arkansas and other areas, as mutually agreed; identifying gene – nutrient interactions that are linked with chronic diseases including obesity by analyzing nutrient intakes, biological fluids, and genetic factors; and through developing computational methods for analyses of gene – nutrient interactions.
During FY10, the Delta Obesity Prevention Vitamin Study was implemented at the summer day camp site of the Boys, Girls, and Adults Community Development Center for the goal of improved food intake and physical activity, and nutrition education. This research was a continuation of studies initiated in 2009. The communities of Marvell and Elaine, AR, were involved in recruitment and informational meetings about the research. Although the sample size was relatively small--55 children and 21 adult data points in 2009 and 114 children and 40 adult data points in 2010--the continuation from summer to summer (same protocols) will increase the numbers and allow for longitudinal observations in some children and adults. Food intake was measured using 24-hour dietary recalls and weighed food records (subsample wearing an accelerometer). Physical activity was measured by accelerometers and physical fitness tests. Data is being analyzed for nutrient intakes (and Healthy Eating Index Scores), physical activity and fitness, serum vitamin and metabolite levels (nine vitamins including thiamine, niacin, folate, pyridoxal, pyridoxine, riboflavin, vitamins A, E, and D3 and two metabolites, S-adenosylmethionine and S-adenosylhomocysteine) and genomics. Comparisons will be made from year to year, within age groups, and individual food intake compared to physical activity measures (in small subsample) and individual genomics.
The ADODR monitors the progress of this research by site visits and frequent meetings and conference calls.
Summer day camp nutrition programs can raise HEI scores in Delta children. Preliminary data from the Delta region has shown lower Healthy Eating Index (HEI) scores in children and adults and greater prevalence rates of obesity than the rest of the United States. Researchers with the FDA, National Center for Toxicological Research (Jefferson, Arkansas) and the USDA, ARS, Delta Obesity Prevention Research Unit (Little Rock, Arkansas) are conducting a study to determine if improved breakfast and lunch menus, increased physical activity patterns, and nutrition education could improve HEI scores and enhance obesity prevention efforts in the rural Delta region. Additionally, this study was designed to determine if individual differences in response to foods eaten and micronutrients and metabolites found in the blood had a relationship to an individual's genetic makeup. Preliminary data analyses suggest that in comparison to the adults who are maintaining their typical diets, HEI scores improved in children participating in the summer day camp and are receiving healthier food items. The impact of this study is that if healthful foods are served, rural at-risk children will consume them and HEI scores will be improved.