2010 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
Cultivars of Camelina sativa have already been released and are being grown for feed, food and biofuel production. Thlaspi arvense, commonly known as pennycress, and other Thlaspi species are of interest for oilseed production because their biennial growth habit would fit into a crop production scheme where Thlaspi would be produced from October-early June, and followed by a different annual crop that would utilize the summer growing season. Neither of these Brassicaceae collections held by the NPGS has been thoroughly evaluated in a common location. Understanding the range of adaptive, phenotypic and compositional traits would enable researchers to better understand genotype x environmental interactions on traits of interest and to target accessions useful for domestication, crop production and end use.
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
In collaboration with the Ames PIRU and the Peoria NCAUR units, ISU will oversee the field and laboratory experiments as follows, and be responsible for loading all GRIN descriptor data into the GRIN system.
Descriptor evaluations will be collected in a replicated design for approximately 40 Camelina and 20 Thlaspi accessions, including appropriate Brassica benchmark accessions as checks, at two locations (Ames, IA and Peoria, IL).
1. Determination of vernalization (whether it is required for bolting) and germination requirements (Ames).
2. Phenological descriptors – emergence date, first, middle and last flower date, flower color, days to harvest in field conditions and under controlled conditions (growth chambers).
3. Morphological and growth descriptors - number of leaves at bolting, flower stalk height, plant height, uniformity, various silique, locule and seed descriptors.
4. Seed production descriptors – seed yield, 100 seed weight.
5. Chemical descriptors – fatty acid compositional profile, seed glucosinolate content, percent oil content, development of oil content during maturation.
6. Collection and posting of digital images of flowers, plants, siliques, and seeds.
7. Tissue collection on DNA cards (2009-2010) for future co-dominant SSR or SNP molecular marker analyses, not currently funded by this project.
SCA monitoring is accomplished through personal, collaborative interactions and exchange of data and report status.
The ISU collaborator and a Ph.D. student, in conjunction with the ADODR, evaluated all Thlaspi sp. (pennycress) accessions and a substantial portion of the Camelina collection for germination response under controlled conditions for light, temperature and humidity. Using a thermal gradient table that can provide a 40 C temperate testing range, researchers conducted a survey to determine viability responses at temperatures ranging from 4 C to 44 C. Accessions were identified that germinate well at the lowest temperate range. This is important to develop an understanding for growth and development parameters for these new crops.
Field plantings were made in September, 2009 and April, 2010. Descriptors were recorded for emergence, flowering, various morphological traits, and seed set. Tissue samples were freeze-dried for DNA extraction and molecular marker analysis. Bulk and individual plant seed samples were analyzed by ARS researchers at NCAUR in Peoria, IL for oil content and fatty acid profile. Fall plantings are planned for 2010 and spring, 2011.