Location: Obesity and Metabolism Research Unit
2011 Annual Report
OBJECTIVE 1: Determine the effects of specific foods, fortified foods, and nutrients on bone health of at-risk population groups. Sub-objective 1.A. Determine the effects of carbonated beverages and milk on calcium kinetics and calcium efflux from the skeleton of women and girls. Sub-objective 1.B. Determine the effects of vitamin B12 deficiency on markers of calcium kinetics, bone health, and calcium metabolism in postmenopausal women.
OBJECTIVE 2: Investigate vitamin B12 and zinc intestinal absorption and metabolism in at-risk populations. Sub-objective 2.A. Determine the absorption of 14C-vitamin B12 from fortified foods in elderly with gastric atrophy and H. pylori infection, pre- and post H. pylori treatment. Sub-objective 2.B. Determine the impact of SNPs in a major Zn uptake gene (ZIP4) on dietary Zn absorption using ZIP4-expressing cell lines.
OBJECTIVE 3. Investigate the effect of Zn supplementation on the development of prostate cancer, a cancer common in African-Americans, using a mouse prostate cancer model (TRAMP).
Sub-objective 1.B. Baseline 41Ca dosing and supplementation of 9 women has been completed. Recruitment has been difficult because a selection criterion is low serum vitamin B12 and few volunteers met this requirement. To obtain preliminary data for a grant proposal, some urine samples from three women were analyzed for 41Ca by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at Lawrence Livermore National Lab. A grant proposal was submitted to the Department of Defense to obtain additional funding, primarily for the cost of the AMS measures ($300 per time point) and to expand the study to a larger B12 supplementation trial. The proposal was not funded and is being resubmitted elsewhere. Additional funding is critical to support cost of the AMS analyses on stored samples.
Sub-objective 2.A. This research uses a novel approach for measuring vitamin B12 absorption from a very low dose 14C-B12 produced in bacteria. The labeled B12 was added to bread dough prior to baking and used to prepare fortified bread. The protocol worked well in the 5 healthy control subjects completed so far. Recruiting volunteers with gastric atrophy has been unsuccessful even after efforts to contact local physicians, work with the UC Davis Medical School, and search 4000 Electronic Medical records to identify potential subjects based on medical information. We will therefore substitute subjects on proton pump inhibitors who also have low gastric acid production. The IRB was recently approved and B12 absorption form fortified bread will be measured in 5 such subjects in FY2012. In addition with funds from the Egg Nutrition Council we used a similar protocol to measure 14C-B12 absorption from chicken eggs labeled in vivo. In a group of 10 subjects we showed bioavailability of B12 from eggs to be good (around 30%). A final report has been submitted to the Egg Nutrition Council and a manuscript is in preparation. Objective 3: Twenty-two percent of TRAMP mice (two out of nine) fed a semi-purified diet containing 15 mg zinc/kg diet at four weeks of age developed prostate cancer at 28 weeks of age which was significantly lower than that of TRAMP mice fed a regular chow diet containing 80 mg zinc/kg diet. In addition, none of the two TRAMP mice with prostate tumor had tumor metastasised to the draining lymph nodes. This is the first demonstration in an animal model with direct evidence that cellular zinc homeostasis is associated with prostate cancer development.
Garrod, M.G., Allen, L.H., Haan, M.N., Green, R., Miller, J.W. 2010. Transcobalamin C776G genotype modifies the association between vitamin B12 and homocysteine in older Hispanics. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 64, 503-509.
Margetts, B.M., Fall, C.H., Ronsmans, C., Allen, L.H., Fisher, D.J. 2009. Multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy in low-income countries: Review of methods and characteristics of studies included in the meta-analysis. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 30:S517-S526.
Dror, D.K., Allen, L.H. 2010. Vitamin D inadequacy in pregnancy: biology, outcomes, and interventions. Nutrition Reviews. 68(8):465-477.
Miller, J.W., Garrod, M.G., Allen, L.H., Haan, M.N., Green, R. 2009. Metabolic evidence of vitamin B-12 deficiency, including high homocysteine and methylmalonic acid and low holotranscobalamin, is more pronounced in older adults with elevated plasma folate. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 90:1586-1592.
Allen, L.H., Peerson, J.M., Olney, D.K. 2009. Provision of multiple rather than two or fewer micronutrients more effectively improves growth and other outcomes in micronutrient-deficient children and adults. Journal of Nutrition. 139: 1022-1030.
Black, R.E., Caulfield, L.E., Allen, L.H., Bhutta, Z.A., De Onis, M., Mathers, C., Ezzati, M., Rivera, J. 2008. Maternal and child undernutrition: global and regional exposures and health consequences. Lancet. 371:243-260.
Kaiser, L.L., Allen, L.H. 2008. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Nutrition and lifestyle for a healthy pregnancy outcome. Journal Of The American Dietetic Association. 108:553-561.
Allen, L.H., Peerson, J.M. 2009. Impact of multiple micronutrient vs. iron - folic acid supplements on maternal anemia and micronutrient status in pregnancy. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. Vol. 30, No. 4.
Allen, L.H. 2008. Priority areas for research on the intake, composition and health effects of nuts and peanuts. Journal of Nutrition. 138:9, 1736S-1756S, 2008.
Allen, L.H. 2008. To what extent can food-based approaches improve micronutrient status?. Trade Journal Publication. 17(S1):103-105.
Allen, L.H. 2009. Limitations of current micronutrient status indicators. Nutrition Reviews. 67:S21-23.
Allen, L.H. 2006. Causes of nutrition-related public health problems of preschool children: Available diet. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. 43:S8-S12.
Arsenault, J., De Romana, D.L., Penny, M., Van Loan, M.D., Brown, K. 2008. Effect of additional zinc, delivered in a fortified food or liquid supplement, on energy intake, appetite and body composition of Young Peruvian children. Journal of Nutrition. 85(2):538-47.
Kasim-Karakas, S., Hyson, D., Halsted, C., Van Loan, M.D., Chedin, E., Berglund, L. 2010. Translational Nutrition Research at UC-Davis – the Key Role of the Clinical and Translational Science Center. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1190:179-83.
Matvienko, O.A., Alekel, D.L., Bhupathiraju, S.N., Hoffman, H., Ritland, L.M., Reddy, M.B., Van Loan, M.D., Perry, C.D. 2011. Androidal fat dominates in predicting cardiometabolic risk in postmenopausal women. Cardiology Research and Practice. DOI: 10.4061/2011/904878.
Schaal, K., Van Loan, M.D., Cassazza, G.A. 2011. Reduced catecholamine response to exercise in amenorrheic athletes. American College of Sports Medicine. 43:34-43.
Barrack, M., Van Loan, M.D. 2011. Proper nutrition can prevent negative health outcomes in young female athletes. California Agriculture. 65:124.
Sriram, R., Iagerstedt, J.O., Samardzic, H., Kreutzer, U., Kaysen, G., Voss, J., Desreux, J.F., Thonon, D., Jacques, V., Van Loan, M.D. 2011. Real time Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Apo AI Metabolism In Vivo. Journal of American Chemists Society. 10.1002/nbm.1650.
Dror, D.K., Allen, L.H. 2011. Vitamin E deficiency in developing countries. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 32(2):124-143.
Dror, D.K., Allen, L.H. 2011. The importance of milk and other animal-source foods for children in low-income countries. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 32(3):227-43.
Olney, D.K., Kariger, P.K., Stoltzfus, R.J., Khalfan, S.S., Ali, N.S., Tielsch, J.M., Sazawal, S., Black, R., Pollitt, E., Allen, L.H. 2009. Development of nutritionally at-risk young children is predicted by malaria, anemia, and stunting in Pemba, Zanzibar. Journal of Nutrition. 139:763-772.