2010 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
The objective is to generate new value-added polysaccharides containing biological active dietary fibers from cereal grains for the nutraceutical and functional food markets. Evaluate the experimental conditions using chemical and enzyme systems for obtaining unique compositions. Examine the created polysaccharides containing elevated dietary fiber compositions (including soluble beta-glucan fibers) for their nutritional benefits related to cardiovascular and diabetic diseases. Continue scientific and technological innovative research on development, extensions, and market possibilities for earlier ARS generated TRIM Technologies: Oatrim, Z-Trim, and Nutrim.
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
The approach is to develop methods for concentrating bioactive cereal fibers using wet thermo-shearing and wet vibro-screen separators. Hydrothermal and
microfluiderization will be explored as well as hydrocolloidal aggregative
formations. Beta-glucan products, having suitable biologically active properties,
will be evaluated for properties to create new technologies similar to the prior ARS generated TRIM Technologies. The suitable products will be scaled up for utility applications and shared with collaborators and potential users.
Substantial results were realized over the 5 years of the project, 3620-41000-146-00D (Bridged from 41000-116/NP306 OSQR Cycle), Health Promoting Foods: Enzymatic Modified Cereals and Their Carbohydrates. Progress was made on the new materials for potential functional food ingredients from corn bran, buckwheat flours, wheat bran, and a variety of barley with high beta-glucan component. Potential bioactive component, feruloyated arabinoxylooligosaccharides, was isolated from from maize (Zea mays) bran by microwave-assisted autohydrolysis. Also, a method was developed for the determination of soluble arabinoxylan released from insoluble substrates by xylanases. Also, a two-stage hydrothermal treatment of wheat (Triticum aestivum) bran was found for the production of feruloyated arabinoxylooligosaccharides. These and related progress produced information to be used in the coming year on prebiotic and other biological activities having promising possibilities related to their polyphenolic and antioxidant activities. These new data on free and bound phenolics and antioxidant activities for buckwheat flours involves a wide variety of components including rutin, quercetin, the aglycone of rutin, epicatechin, catechin 7-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside, epicatechin 3-O-p-hydroxybezoate, and epicatechin 3-O(3,4-di-O-methyl)-gallate. Soluble oligomeric condensed catechins occur in common buckwheat flours and are responsible for the astringency and affect the color and biological activity of these products. The focus on this area of research is on developing technolgies for producing novel and health-promoting hydrocolloids with biological activities as a segment on creating new technologies for producing novel and health-promoting functional food ingredients.
This research project has led to the creation of a fourth TRIM product, Calorie-Trim. This extends the Trim technologies which have led to the development of Oatrim, Z-Trim and Nutrim, all licensed to industrial organizations. Oatrim technology (U.S. Patent 4,996,063) was the first technology transferred to three companies for wide use in consumer foods. Nutrim technology (U.S. Patent 6,060,519) was exclusively licensed and it has achieved a remarkable expanding market requiring additional plant expansion. Z-Trim technology (U.S. Patent 5,766,662) was licensed, and its technology transferred to Fibergel Technologies (now Z-Trim Holding Inc). These technologies have created industrial products that are achieving sizable markets and making health improvement in the American diet. During this period, the Calorie-Trim patent appears near completion. The new materials for potential functional food ingredients from corn bran, buckwheat flours, wheat bran, and a variety of barley with high beta-glucan component have resulted in potentially new functional food ingredients.
Inglett, G.E., Rose, D.J., Stevenson, D., Chen, D., Biswas, A. 2009. Total Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from Distillers' Dried Grains. Cereal Chemistry. 86(6):661-664.
Rose, D.J., Inglett, G.E. 2010. Production of Feruloyated Arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides from Maize (Zea mays) Bran by Microwave-Assisted Autohydrolysis. Journal of Food Chemistry. 119:1613-1618.
Rose, D.J., Inglett, G.E., Liu, S.X. 2010. Utilisation of Corn (Zea mays) Bran and Corn Fiber in the Production of Food Components. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 90(6):915-924.
Inglett, G.E., Rose, D.J., Chen, D., Biswas, A. 2009. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from Whole Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) With or Without Microwave Irradiation. Journal of Food Chemistry. 119:1216-1219.