2009 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
The fertilizer industry and the USDA-Agricultural Research Service's (USDA-ARS) GRACEnet project need scientifically sound N2O emissions data from field research plots treated with various N sources across the U.S. The USDA-ARS GRACEnet cross location project has (1) a research network in place; (2) established cross location protocols for greenhouse gas sampling; (3) the facilities and personnel; and (4) the initial instrumentation required to expand its collection of this type of data. GRACEnet objective 2 includes the collection of CO2, N2O and CH4 greenhouse gas data, in addition to soil carbon sequestration.
This research project will evaluate the effects of controlled release and stabilized nitrogen sources on nitrous oxide emissions in rainfed and irrigated cropping systems at several ARS research locations compared with the commonly used urea and urea-ammonium nitrate fertilizer sources.
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
Nitrogen source studies will be conducted at seven ARS locations (listed below) to collect greenhouse gas emissions data from corn, cotton, wheat, and potato cropping systems (varies with location). Several N fertilizer sources (a controlled release polymer-coated urea (ESN); a stabilized urea source, SuperU or UAN treated with AgrotainPlus; UAN and/or Urea as conventional sources) will be applied as a minimum to a cropping system at each location. Except for the irrigated Fort Collins site and one irrigated site at St. Paul, all sites are rainfed cropping systems, with either conventional tillage or no-tillage management practices, or both. Nitrogen rates at each location will include at least a near optimal N rate (for greenhouse gas data collection) for the crop and cropping system. The N sources will be applied using normal farming practices at each location. Nitrous oxide emissions (and possibly CO2 and CH4 emissions) from each N source treatment and a check (zero fertilizer N applied) treatment will be monitored several times each week during the growing season. Methods used for greenhouse gas measurements will follow those established for the ARS GRACEnet program. Crop yield data, needed soil water and temperature data, and other necessary data needed to interpret the greenhouse gas emissions results will be collected. A scientifically sound experimental design with a minimum of 3 replications will be used at each location.
5402-11000-008-00L: GRACEnet: An Assessment of Soil Carbon Sequestration and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation by Agricultural Management
Cross Location Participants listed under 5402-11000-008-00L/411610:
3625-11000-004-00D/409178: Trace Gas Exchanges in Midwest Cropping Systems
--Dr. Jerry Hatfield (Log 36454): National Soil Tilth Res. Lab (Ames, IA)
3640-12000-007-00D/410684: Farming Practices for the Northern Corn Belt to Protect Soil Resources, Support Biofuel Production and Reduce Global Warming Potential
--Dr. Rod Venterea (Log 36446): Soil and Water Mgmnt. Res. (St. Paul, MN)
5348-11000-005-00D/414427: Quantifying and Predicting Emission of PM10 and Greenhouse Gases from Agricultural Soils
--Dr. Jeff Smith (Log 36639): Land Mgmt. & Water Conservation Res. (Pullman, WA)
5402-12130-008-00D/410759: Improving Soil and Nutrient Management Systems for Sustained Productivity and Environmental Quality
--Dr. Ardell Halvorson (Log 36366): Soil, Plant, Nutrient Res. (Fort Collins, CO)
6420-12610-003-00D/410823: Conservation Systems Research for Improving Environmental Quality and Producer Profitability
--Dr. Allen Torbert (Log 36463): Soil Dynamics Res. (Auburn, AL)
6445-12630-003-00D/408828: Efficient Management and Use of Animal Manure to Protect Human Health and Environmental Quality
--Dr. Karamat Sistani (Log 38541): Animal Waste Mgmnt Res. (Bowling Green, KY)
1902-13000-001-00D/412004: Integrated Management of Land and Water Resources for Environmental and Economic Sustainability in the Northeast U.S.
--Dr. Curtis Dell (Log 38490): Pasture Systems & Watershed Mgmnt Res. (Univ. Park, PA)
Results from the 2008 growing season were summarized and put into a progress report provided to FAR to document progress during the first year. Trends as to the effect of nitrogen source on nitrous oxide emissions could not be drawn with only one year of data. Two additional sites were added for the 2009 growing season, Bowling Green, KY and University Park, PA. A manuscript was prepared from two years of data collected at the Fort Collins, Colorado site. The manuscript has been accepted for publication. Data from St. Paul, MN and Fort Collins, Colorado were presented at the 2008 ASA-SSSA-CSSA meeting in Houston, TX. Progress at each of the locations has been monitored through emails, phone calls, and site visits. Additional details for the research can be found in the report for the parent project 5402-12130-008-00D, Improving Soil and Nutrient Management Systems For Sustained Productivity and Environmental Quality.