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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: WHAT WE EAT IN AMERICA - DIETARY SURVEY: DATA COLLECTION, INTERPRETATION, DISSEMINATION, AND METHODOLOGY

Location: Food Surveys

2012 Annual Report


1a.Objectives (from AD-416):
The mission of the Food Survey Research Group is to monitor and assess food consumption and related behavior of the U.S. population by conducting surveys and providing the resulting information for food and nutrition-related programs and public policy decisions. The following four objectives provide the structure and priorities to assure that this fundamental nutrition work is conducted with scientific integrity in a timely fashion. Objective 1. In collaboration with DHHS’ National Center for Health Statistics, collect, process, and disseminate nationwide dietary survey data according to specified timelines. Objective 2. Maintain and update supporting survey-related databases based upon scientifically sound research and utilizing new technological innovations. Objective 3. Assess dietary measurement error and update and/or revise dietary data collection methods and quality control procedures to enhance the accuracy and precision of dietary survey data. Objective 4. Analyze and interpret results from the nationwide dietary survey focusing on strategies for correct use of data, dietary nutritional adequacy of the American population and at-risk sub-groups, public health nutritional concerns, and/or policy implications.

Temporary Objectives:

Objective 1: Ensure that current functionality of the data output from Food Surveys Research Group is not compromised, including continuation of the second day of dietary surveillance and timely release of FNDDS and other databases.

Objective 2: Conduct an independent and outside evaluation of the IT capabilities of the Food Surveys Research Group and the associated use of the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference with respect to the ability to acquire, maintain and release data in a timely fashion and in multiple formats needed by the customers.

Objective 3: Implement changes to update and modernize the IT infrastructure underlying the Food Surveys Research Group.


1b.Approach (from AD-416):
The research approach is to maintain and enhance the components of the USDA Dietary Intake Data System to assure that the dietary collection method, the USDA Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM), and the supporting systems and databases result in the collection of dietary data that are scientifically sound, accurate, and valid. The USDA AMPM is being used to collect 10,000 dietary recalls yearly in What We Eat In America, the dietary interview component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The Food Surveys Research Group, having the lead responsibility for the dietary assessment component of NHANES, will assure that.
1)the dietary collection method collects accurate data and is valid,.
2)the data collected meet stakeholder needs and are released in a timely fashion,.
3)the systems for data collection and processing are technologically advanced and efficient,.
4)the dietary databases to support data analyses are scientifically sound and current so as to reflect the U.S. food supply at the time of data collection, and.
5)the applications developed for collection and processing are made available to the fullest extent possible. Special purpose databases to support specialized research policy needs,including the MyPyramid Equivalents Database used to assess American diets in relation to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, will be developed and maintained.

Temporary Approaches:

Approach 1. Continue to review data sets for their completeness and accuracy. Continue to work with NCHS to monitor collection of dietary information, including electronic monitoring for second day collection.

Approach 2: Identify knowledgeable individuals with expertise in information technologies to serve as consultants about future needs for evaluating essential and non-essential food components in the foods eaten by Americans.

Approach 3. Change hardware and software as appropriate to ensure access to high quality information about the eating behaviors of Americans.


3.Progress Report:
Through an ongoing collaboration with the National Center for Health Statistics, DHHS, the Food Surveys Research Group (FSRG) has the lead role for dietary data collection and processing of What We Eat In America (WWEIA), NHANES. Web release of WWEIA, NHANES 2009-2010 provided the fifth release of national dietary data from this collaboration. The corresponding Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) 5.0, used to analyze dietary intakes, was also released in 2012.

FSRG is conducting quality control oversight for dietary intake data collection, coding, and processing for WWEIA 2012. Additionally, the 2011 dietary data were reviewed and edited. An extensive review and update of the USDA Automated Multiple-Pass Method (AMPM), the method used to collect 24-hour dietary recall in WWEIA, was completed for implementation in 2013. To assure that dietary methodology reflect important changes in the U.S. food market, selected food categories were reviewed and the AMPM and related databases were updated. The review assessed and updated about one-third of the foods and beverages reported in WWEIA, NHANES. Stakeholder outreach on WWEIA dietary data was conducted in several venues by FSRG scientists. Analysis of the 2009-2010 WWEIA data is underway to construct dietary data briefs for release on the FSRG Web site in 2013 and for research papers.

The Food Intake as Retail Commodities Database (FICRCD), documentation, and summary data tables for use with the WWEIA 2003-2004 were completed and are in peer review. FICRCD for WWEIA 2005-2006 is being completed. These databases, developed in collaboration with the Economic Research Service, define foods reported in national dietary surveys by 65 unique retail food commodities in order to report on food consumption by those commodities.

The Food Patterns Equivalents Database (FPED) corresponds with specific 2-year data releases of WWEIA, NHANES to provide the analytical basis for researchers to evaluate diets based on the recommendations of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA). An assessment and redesign of the process for developing the database with the underlying purpose of being able to provide the FPED in a more timely manner and reflect the changes based on the 2010 DGA is underway.

Quarterly meetings were held with FPED immediate users (NCI and CNPP) to provide review and input into the strategic changes for retooling and redesign of FPED. The new process was applied to WWEIA, NHANES 2007-2008 data, and final quality control checks and reviews of the data are underway.

FSRG, in collaboration with NDL, has identified a list of approximately 130 sentinel foods to be monitored as primary indicators of changes in the sodium content of the food supply and sodium intake of the U.S. population. The sentinel foods list and documentation are in peer review.

WWEIA Food Categories, a scheme of more than 100 categories to group foods in the FNDDS that can readily be used for food consumption analysis by researchers, was developed and peer reviewed. They will be finalized and released on the FSRG web site in 2013.


4.Accomplishments
1. Release of national survey data from What We Eat in America, NHANES 2009-2010. Through an ongoing collaboration with the National Center for Health Statistics of DHHS, the Food Surveys Research Group (FSRG) has the leadership role for dietary data collection and processing of What We Eat in America (WWEIA), NHANES. FSRG is in the eleventh successful year of that agreement. New nationwide dietary intake data were collected in WWEIA for the years 2009-2010 and were released on the Internet for public use. The data include information on dietary intakes of 9,754 individuals from two nonconsecutive days, 24-hour dietary recalls along with sample weights that can be used to make estimates about dietary intakes of the U.S. population. These data are used by Federal-level and state-level decision makers and researchers in such tasks as monitoring the nutritional adequacy of U.S. diets, modeling the impact of food fortification on nutrient intakes, estimating exposure of population groups to contaminants, developing dietary guidance, and assessing the demand for agricultural products. Linked with health indicators from other components of the NHANES, these data provide opportunities to study relationships between eating patterns and health conditions. The data are accessible from www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/fsrg.

2. Release of summary dietary data tables. WWEIA, NHANES dietary intake data have been analyzed and results have been released on the Web in summarized data tables and dietary data briefs. Forty tables were released for WWEIA, NHANES 2009-2010. The tables report nutrient intakes from food and the contribution of protein, carbohydrates, fat, and alcohol in the American diet as well as the following: percentage of nutrients contributed by foods eaten away from home, at breakfast, at lunch, at dinner and as snacks; distribution of snack occasion; and distribution of meal patterns. They also provide dietary information for individuals ages 2 and older based on income level and ethnicity.

3. Release of dietary data briefs. WWEIA, NHANES dietary intake data have been analyzed and results have been released on the Web in two dietary data briefs. Data briefs are short reports focusing on a single topic summarizing key results from What We Eat In America. The topics for the two briefs include dietary intakes of choline and sodium intakes of the U.S. population. The availability of these data briefs is beneficial in providing dietary survey results to food and nutrition program policy and decision makers in Federal, state, and local government, researchers at academic institutions, nutrition scientists and educators, and food and agricultural specialists in industry. The data briefs are accessible from www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/fsrg.

4. Update and Release of the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies. The USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies 5.0 (FNDDS) was released on the Internet. The FNDDS is an extensive database of foods as consumed in the U.S. that is used to code foods and portion sizes and to calculate nutrients for the large-scale Federal food consumption survey, What We Eat In America (WWEIA), the dietary intake component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). FNDDS contains information for more than 7,000 foods. Values for food energy and 64 other nutrients are included for each food, as well as weights for common portions of the food. Most of the nutrient values in FNDDS are derived from the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference 24. New versions of FNDDS are released every two years to accompany the release of the WWEIA, NHANES data. This update (version 5.0) of FNDDS was used to process food intakes from WWEIA, NHANES 2009-2010. The database is also a valuable research tool for scientists conducting studies that collect food intake data. The database is accessible from www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/fsrg.


Review Publications
Hoy, M.K., Goldman, J.D., Murayi, T., Rhodes, D.G., Moshfegh, A.J. 2011. Sodium intake of the U.S. population: What We Eat In America, NHANES 2007-2008. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=19476.

Chester, D.N., Goldman, J.D., Ahuja, J.K., Moshfegh, A.J. 2011. Dietary intakes of choline: What We Eat In America, NHANES 2007-2008. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.html?docid=19476.

LaComb, R.P., Sebastian, R.S., Enns, C.W., Goldman, J.D. 2011. Beverage choices of U.S. adults: What We Eat In America, NHANES 2007-2008. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=19476.

Sebastian, R.S., Enns, C.W., Goldman, J.D. 2011. Drinking water intake in the U.S.: What We Eat In America, NHANES 2005-2008. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=19476.

Sebastian, R.S., Enns, C.W., Goldman, J.D., Moshfegh, A.J. 2012. Change in methodology for collection of drinking water intake in What We Eat In America/National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: Implications for analysis. Public Health Nutrition. 15(7):1190-1195. DOI: 10.1017/S1368980012000316.

Sebastian, R.S., Enns, C.W., Steinfeldt, L.C., Goldman, J.D., Moshfegh, A.J. 2012. Discontinuation of data processing step: Salt adjustment on designated foods likely to be home prepared. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=18352.

Anand, J., Goldman, J.D., Steinfeldt, L.C., Montville, J.B., Heendeniya, K.Y., Omolewa-Tomobi, G., Enns, C.W., Ahuja, J.K., Martin, C.L., LaComb, R.P., Moshfegh, A.J. 2012. What We Eat In America, NHANES 2009-2010: Documentation and Data Files. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: http://www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=18349

Rhodes, D.G., Clemens, J.C., Goldman, J.D., LaComb, R.P., Moshfegh, A.J. 2012. 2009-2010 What We Eat In America, NHANES Tables 1-36. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: http://www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=18349.

Ahuja, J.K., Montville, J.B., Omolewa-Tomobi, G., Heendeniya, K.Y., Martin, C.L., Steinfeldt, L.C., Anand, J., Adler, M.E., LaComb, R.P., Moshfegh, A.J. 2012. The USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies, 5.0. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: http://www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=12089.

Rosner Preis, S., Spiegelman, D., Zhao, B., Moshfegh, A.J., Baer, D.J., Willett, W.C. 2011. Random and correlated errors in gold standards used in nutritional epidemiology: implications for validation studies. American Journal of Epidemiology. 173:683-94.

Stote, K.S., Moshfegh, A.J., Ingwersen, L.A., Radecki, S.V., Baer, D.J. 2011. The number of 24 h dietary recalls using the U.S. Department of Agriculture's automated multiple-pass method required to estimate nutrient intake in overweight and obese adults. Public Health Nutrition. 18:1-7.

Moshfegh, A.J., Holden, J.M., Reedy, J., Cogswell, M.E., Kuklina, E.V., Patel, S.M., Gunn, J.P., Gillespie, C., Hong, Y., Merritt, R., Galuska, D.A. 2012. Vital Signs: Food categories contributing the most to sodium consumption - United States, 2007-2008. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 61(5):92-98. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/wk/mm61e0207.pdf.

Cogswell, M.E., Zhang, Z., Carriquiry, A.L., Gunn, J.P., Kuklina, E.V., Saydah, S.H., Yang, Q., Moshfegh, A.J. 2012. Sodium and potassium intake among U.S. adults, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2008. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.112.034413.

Crane, N.T., Juan, W., Goldman, J.D., Ellwood, K.C., Schneeman, B.O. 2011. National nutrition objectives and 10-year targets: Perspectives on their basis and evolution. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 111(11):1660-1668. DOI: 10.1016/j.jada.2011.08.010.

Last Modified: 7/28/2014
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