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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: WHAT WE EAT IN AMERICA - DIETARY SURVEY: DATA COLLECTION, INTERPRETATION, DISSEMINATION, AND METHODOLOGY

Location: Food Surveys

2011 Annual Report


1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
The mission of the Food Survey Research Group is to monitor and assess food consumption and related behavior of the U.S. population by conducting surveys and providing the resulting information for food and nutrition-related programs and public policy decisions. The following four objectives provide the structure and priorities to assure that this fundamental nutrition work is conducted with scientific integrity in a timely fashion. Objective 1. In collaboration with DHHS’ National Center for Health Statistics, collect, process, and disseminate nationwide dietary survey data according to specified timelines. Objective 2. Maintain and update supporting survey-related databases based upon scientifically sound research and utilizing new technological innovations. Objective 3. Assess dietary measurement error and update and/or revise dietary data collection methods and quality control procedures to enhance the accuracy and precision of dietary survey data. Objective 4. Analyze and interpret results from the nationwide dietary survey focusing on strategies for correct use of data, dietary nutritional adequacy of the American population and at-risk sub-groups, public health nutritional concerns, and/or policy implications.


1b.Approach (from AD-416)
The research approach is to maintain and enhance the components of the USDA Dietary Intake Data System to assure that the dietary collection method, the USDA Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM), and the supporting systems and databases result in the collection of dietary data that are scientifically sound, accurate, and valid. The USDA AMPM is being used to collect 10,000 dietary recalls yearly in What We Eat In America, the dietary interview component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The Food Surveys Research Group, having the lead responsibility for the dietary assessment component of NHANES, will assure that.
1)the dietary collection method collects accurate data and is valid,.
2)the data collected meet stakeholder needs and are released in a timely fashion,.
3)the systems for data collection and processing are technologically advanced and efficient,.
4)the dietary databases to support data analyses are scientifically sound and current so as to reflect the U.S. food supply at the time of data collection, and.
5)the applications developed for collection and processing are made available to the fullest extent possible. Special purpose databases to support specialized research policy needs,including the MyPyramid Equivalents Database used to assess American diets in relation to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, will be developed and maintained.


3.Progress Report
Through an ongoing collaboration with the National Center for Health Statistics, DHHS, the Food Surveys Research Group (FSRG) has the lead role for dietary data collection and processing of What We Eat In America (WWEIA), NHANES. Web release of WWEIA, NHANES 2009-2010 dietary data is on schedule for 2012, providing the fifth release of national dietary data from this collaboration. The new data will provide information on dietary intakes of 10,000 individuals based on 24-hour dietary recalls weighted to be representative of the population. The corresponding Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) 5.0 will also be released in 2012. The FNDDS is used to analyze dietary intakes from WWEIA and by nutrition researchers in their dietary studies. It will include a 65-nutrient profile for each of more than 13,000 foods typically eaten in the U.S. The nutrient values for FNDDS 5.0 were derived from the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR), Release 24, maintained by the Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL).

In FY2011, FSRG conducted quality control oversight for dietary data collection, coding, and processing for WWEIA, NHANES 2011. The review and update of the USDA 5-step Automated Multiple Pass Method, used to collect 24-hour dietary recalls in WWEIA, was also completed for implementation in 2011. To ensure that supporting survey food databases are current and reflect changes in the U.S. food market, selected food categories were reviewed to check for new foods, changes to current foods in the database, and new portion sizes.

The Food Intakes Converted to Retail Commodities Database (FICRCD) for CSFII 1994-1996 and 1998, NHANES 1999-2000, and WWEIA, NHANES 2001-2002 was completed and released online. FICRCD for WWEIA, NHANES 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 are being developed. These databases, developed in collaboration with the Economic Research Service, define foods reported in national surveys by 65 retail food commodities in order to report on food consumption by those commodities.

The Food Patterns Equivalents Database (FPED) corresponds with specific 2-year data releases of WWEIA, NHANES to provide the analytical basis to evaluate diets based on the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA). The development process for the FPED is being retooled in order to release the FPED update in a timely manner---with each release of WWEIA, NHANES, and to reflect changes required in assigned components because of new requirements contained in the 2010 DGA.

FSRG, in collaboration with NDL, has identified a list of sentinel foods to be monitored as primary indicators of changes in the sodium content of the food supply and sodium intake of the U.S. population. The foods and their sodium values are based on national databases used in WWEIA, NHANES, including FNDDS and SR. The foods were determined by frequency of consumption evaluation of the most recent sodium levels in foods which contribute significant amounts of sodium to the diet, and consideration of possible reductions as part of the national trend of the food industry to reduce sodium in commercial, multi-ingredient foods.


4.Accomplishments
1. Release of national estimates of daily intakes of retail food commodities. Through collaboration with the Economic Research Service, foods reported in national dietary surveys have been disaggregated into 65 unique retail food commodities in order to report on amounts consumed daily of those commodities. Three sets of tables have been released on the Web that summarize food intakes across the 65 commodities for 23 age-gender groups for national dietary surveys conducted in 1994-96 & 1998; 1999-2000; and 2001-2002. These estimates provide unique data to assess food intakes of Americans closer to the farm gate. The Food Intakes Converted to Retail Commodities Database (FICRCD) that converts foods reported in the surveys from 1994-2002 as well as the Methodology and User Guide for FICRCD were also released on the Web; all are accessible along with the data tables from www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/fsrg.

2. Release of summary dietary intake data tables. WWEIA, NHANES dietary intake and dietary supplement use data have been analyzed and results have been released on the Web in summarized data tables. Four tables were added to the 36 tables available for WWEIA, NHANES 2007-2008. The tables report vitamin and mineral intakes from both food and dietary supplements for all individuals aged 2 years and older as well as for supplement users and non-users by age/gender groups, by race/ethnicity groups, and by family income. These tables represent a major advance in reporting total intakes in that they include estimates of nutrient intake from dietary supplements. The availability of these dietary intake data tables is beneficial in providing dietary survey results to food and nutrition program policy and decision makers in Federal, state, and local government, researchers at academic institutions, nutrition scientists and educators, and food and agricultural specialists in industry. The tables are accessible from www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/fsrg.

3. Release of dietary data briefs. WWEIA, NHANES dietary intake data have been analyzed and results have been released on the Web in four dietary data briefs. Data briefs are short reports focusing on a single topic summarizing key results from What We Eat In America. The topics for the four briefs include snacking patterns of U.S. adults, MyPyramid intakes and snacking patterns of U.S. adults, beverage choices of U.S. adults, and drinking water intake in the U.S. The availability of these data briefs is beneficial in providing dietary survey results to food and nutrition program policy and decision makers in Federal, state, and local government, researchers at academic institutions, nutrition scientists and educators, and food and agricultural specialists in industry. The data briefs are accessible from www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/fsrg.


Review Publications
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2010. Snacking patterns of U.S. adolescents: What We Eat In America, NHANES 2005-2006. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=19476.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2010. Fluid milk consumption in the United States: What We Eat In America, NHANES 2005-2006. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=19476.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2011. Snacking patterns of U.S. adults: What We Eat In America, 2007-2008. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=19476.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2011. MyPyramid intakes and snacking patterns of U.S. adults: What We Eat In America, 2007-2008. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=19476.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2011. 2007-2008 What We Eat In America, NHANES Tables 37-40. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=18349.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2011. Methodology and User Guide for the Food Intakes Converted to Retail Commodities Databases: CSFII 1994-1996 and 1998; NHANES 1999-2000; WWEIA, NHANES 2001-2002. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=21994.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2011. Retail food commodity intakes: Mean amounts of retail commodities per individual, 1994-1998. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=21992.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2011. Retail food commodity intakes: Mean amounts of retail commodities per individual, 1999-2000. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=21992.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2011. Retail food commodity intakes: Mean amounts of retail commodities per individual, 2001-2002. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=21992.

Last Modified: 10/1/2014
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