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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: ARID LAND PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES CONSERVATION, EVALUATION, AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT

Location: San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center

2012 Annual Report


1a.Objectives (from AD-416):
1)Strategically expand the genetic diversity in selected genebank collections and improve associated information for priority genetic resources of crops, crop varieties, and native plant genetic resources adapted to long-season and/or arid land conditions. 1A) Acquire samples and associated information for Parthenium (Guayule), Lesquerella (bladderpod), Limnanthes (meadow foam), and Simmondsia (jojoba) from selected sites in the United States, Mexico, and Central and South American countries, that will fit current gaps in NPGS collections. 1B) In cooperation with the state and federal governments in the Southwest U.S. and relevant state rare plant societies identify and establish in situ seed collection sites for endemic species of Parthenium, Lesquerella and Limnanthes. 2) In collaboration with other NPGS sites, efficiently and effectively regenerate and conserve priority crops and native plant genetic resources adapted to long-season and/or arid land conditions, and distribute samples and associated information worldwide. 2A) Conserve and distribute 1,583 accessions of oilseed, vegetable, medicinal, industrial crop genetic resources adapted to arid climates, emphasizing Parthenium, Lesquerella, Limnanthes, and Simmondsia. 2B) Continue to regenerate the accessions from other NPGS sites, and clonal and seed propagated accessions for Parlier priority crops, emphasizing accessions with low germination, low seed supply, open-pollinated seed stocks, those lacking security back-up or those designated by the primary NPGS curator as important, and continue to develop new and/or superior regenerations methods. Regenerate 1,000-1,500 accessions per year of Parthenium, Lesquerella, Limnanthes, Simmondsia and other NPGS site species that are in need of new seed or back-up at second sites, emphasizing critical back-ups of Parthenium, Lesquerella and Limnanthes. 3) In collaboration with other NPGS sites, strategically characterize (genotype) and evaluate (phenotype) selected priority crop genetic resources for DNA markers, morphological descriptors, and key agronomic or horticultural traits, and incorporate characterization and evaluation data into the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) and/or other relevant databases. 3A) With cooperaters, apply newly developed DNA marker data to phylogenetic and genetic diversity analyses of priority crops, especially Parthenium, Limnanthes and Lesquerella. Incorporate characterization data into the GRIN and/or other databases. 3B) Conduct cooperative research to update and apply phenotypic descriptors for priority collections with an emphasis on morphological and horticultural traits, such as key floral, fruit, and seed characteristics as well as characterizing industrial or other value relative to features related to adaptation to arid land conditions.


1b.Approach (from AD-416):
1)Make critical evaluation of the collections now held at Parlier, and prioritize the intrinsic value of each collection relative to the resources available. New accessions will be aquired through exchange with other scientists in the universities and/or institutions, foreign countries national programs, botanical gardens, or by plant exploration. Initiate the ground surveys of vernal pools in California to identify key areas where in situ conservations sites can be designed for multiple species of Limnanthes. Identify populations of Parthenium and Lesquerella in the Southwest U.S. such that future seed and/or DNA sample acquisitions will be possible. 2) Relevant information, available passport documentation and germplasm characterization data collected according to proposed or established descriptors for priority taxa grown for other NPGS sites will be summarized and provided to GRIN. Regeneration and back-up of seed and/or clonal germplasm accessions from other NPGS sites will be continued and expanded in accordance with protocols agreed upon by the Parlier curator and the NPGS curators responsible for the crop. Establishment of viable back-up plots at other sites and/or the development of effective protocols will be the initial priority. Emphasis on germplasm regeneration and management schedules to enhance security back-ups will take place at NCGRP. Selected accessions assigned to other NPGS sites that require or are adapted to arid land, long season conditions for growth and reproduction will be regenerated at Parlier. 3) DNA will be isolated from bulked samples of the major out breeding collections using a standard CTAB protocol. Genetic diversity studies will be conducted with PCR-based markers. SSR markers will be used where they are available or where development of these markers is possible.


3.Progress Report:
During FY12, 1626 climate-specific accessions were regenerated at the National Arid Land Plant Genetic Research Unit (NALPGRU) at the request of curators from Aberdeen, ID, (1257 cereals), Ames, IA, (50 sunflowers, cumins and Dalea), and Pullman, WA,(319 garlic and Hedysarum accessions). The Corylus backup collection was maintained by regular pruning, spraying and other routine agricultural practices.

After the recent regeneration of NALPGRU perennials and the assessment of the number of accessions both newly received and those that have been in cold storage, it is evident that the field area cannot support any more backup collections from other germplasm banks without losing part of site-specific collection. Both seed and clonal propagules were provided to germplasm users through the Germplasm Resource Information Network (GRIN). Requests from germplasm users totaled 625 accessions; 119 of them were international requests. The most requested genus was Opuntia (132), followed by Parthenium (129), Limnanthes (75), and Physaria/Paysonia (67).

Efforts to maintain the integrity of the Parlier collections were increased. In FY12, all the inventories were reviewed again to determine which accessions needed urgent regeneration both for maintenance of germplasm and for distribution. 34 Atriplex, 28 Limnanthes and 41 Physaria/Paysonia accessions were regenerated from seed and 33 accessions of the perennial Parthenium were caged and selfed seed were collected. 27 accessions of Parthenium collected by Rollins in 1976/77 and donated to the system in 1989 were found inviable. 24 of 25 accessions of Parthenium donated by UC, Riverside, in 2004 were found to be viable and are growing in the greenhouse. 23 accessions of jojoba collected in 1992 were viable and 2 donated in 1975 were not. From 27 accessions of Bassia that had never been regenerated only 6 were found to be viable; the seeds were collected as early as 1954 and as late as 1978. Maintenance pruning of the Parthenium and Atriplex collection was done.

143 new accessions were received from the Western Regional Plant Introduction Station in Pullman, WA. All genera kept at NALPGRU were included in these new accessions, and the Atriplex collection was increased by 87 new entries. All but the 14 annuals have already been planted and are growing in the greenhouse. 5 new accessions of Opuntia were donated; 13 new accessions of Parthenium were received from The Tallgrass Prairie Center in Cedar Falls, IA, 3 new accessions of Cucurbita foetidissima were donated and 1 was collected and all are being grown in the greenhouse.

Research is being conducted on Opuntia spp. seed viability and another study is in progress on rooting of Simmondsia cuttings throughout the year in two accessions from different geographic locations. Over 4,400 images have been obtained for NALPGRU crops and will be added to GRIN-Global when it becomes available. Opuntia fruit descriptor data are collected as accessions become mature enough to fruit.

99 Lesquerella accessions and 73 Limnanthes accessions were regenerated and the seed processed and packaged for future glucosinolate analysis at a cooperator’s laboratory.


4.Accomplishments
1. Regeneration of curated stocks. During FY12, 1626 climate-specific accessions were regenerated at the National Arid Land Plant Genetic Research Unit (NALPGRU) at the request of curators from Aberdeen, Idaho, Ames, Iowa, and Pullman, Washington. The Corylus backup collection was maintained by regular pruning, spraying and other routine agricultural practices. The NALPGRU perennials were recently regenerated and require field space. Therefore, the field area cannot support any more backup collections from other germplasm banks without losing part of site-specific collection.

2. Distribution of curated stocks. Both seed and clonal propagules were provided to germplasm users through requests originating in the Germplasm Resource Information Network (GRIN). Requests from germplasm users totaled 625 accessions. Of those,119 of them were international requests. The most requested genus was Opuntia (132), followed by Parthenium (129), Limnanthes (75), and Physaria/Paysonia (67). Requests for arid land plant germplasm came from researchers in academic institutions and private industry (mostly breeders, physiologists, and some anthropologists) and non-researchers in nurseries and growers of novelty crops.

3. Inventory management of curated stocks. In FY12, all the inventories were checked again to determine which accessions needed urgent regeneration both for maintenance of germplasm and for distribution. A total of 34 Atriplex,28 Limnanthes and 41 Physaria/Paysonia accessions were regenerated from seed and 33 accessions of the perennial Parthenium were caged and selfed seed were collected. A total of 27 accessions of Parthenium collected in 1976 and 1977 and donated to the system in 1989 were found nonviable. A total of 24 of 25 accessions of Parthenium donated by UC, Riverside in 2004 were found to be viable and are growing in the greenhouse. A total of 23 accessions of jojoba collected in 1992 were viable and 2 donated in 1975 were not. From 27 accessions of Bassia that had never been regenerated only 6 were found to be viable; the seeds were collected as early as 1954 and as late as 1978. Maintenance pruning of the Parthenium and Atriplex collection was done.

4. Acquisition of new gentic stocks. One hundred and forty-three new accessions were received from the Western Regional Plant Introduction Station in Pullman, Washington. All genera kept at the National Arid Land Plant Genetic Research Unit (NALPGRU) were included in these new accessions, and the Atriplex collection was increased by 87 new entries. All but the 14 annuals have already been planted and are growing in the greenhouse. Five new accessions of Opuntia were donated; 13 new accessions of Parthenium were received from The Tallgrass Prairie Center in Cedar Falls, Iowa, 3 new accessions of Cucurbita foetidissima were donated and 1 was collected. All are being grown in the greenhouse.

5. Evaluation. Research is being conducted on Opuntia spp. seed viability and another study is in progress on rooting of Simmondsia cuttings in two accessions from different geographic locations. Over 4,400 images have been obtained for the National Arid Land Plant Genetic Research Unit (NALPGRU) crops and will be added to GRIN-Global when it becomes available. Opuntia fruit descriptors are being collected as accessions are mature enough to produce fruits. 99 Lesquerella accessions and 73 Limnanthes accessions were regenerated and the seed processed and packaged for future glucosinolate analysis at a cooperator’s laboratory.


Review Publications
Scheffler, J.A., Romano, G.B. 2012. Registration of GVS1 GVS2 and GVS3 upland cotton lines with varying gland densities and two near isogenic lines GVS4 and GVS5. Journal of Plant Registrations. 6:190-194.

Scheffler, J.A., Romano, G.B., Blanco, C.A. 2012. Evaluating host plant resistance in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) with varying gland densities to tobacco budworm (heliothis virescens F.) and bollworm (Heliocoverpa zea Boddie) in the field and laboratory. Acarology International Congress Proceedings. 3:14-23.

Cruz, V.V., Romano, G.B., Dierig, D.A. 2012. Effects of after-ripening and storage regimes on seed-germination behavior of seven species of Physaria. Industrial Crops and Products. 35:185-191.

Romano, G.B., Taliercio, E.W., Turley, R.B., Scheffler, J.A. 2011. Fiber initiation in eighteen gossypium cultivars and experimental lines. Journal of Cotton Science. 15:61-72.

Last Modified: 7/28/2014
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