2012 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416):
1. Compare the productivity, profitability, energy self-sufficiency, and environmental impact (water and carbon) of a southeast peanut-based production system.
1.A. Determine the optimal Southeastern states irrigation strategies for specific peanut rotation sequences that minimize soil-borne disease pressure.
2. Develop improved irrigation and tillage strategies for peanut-based rotation systems.
2.A. Develop handling and processing strategies for peanuts produced for biodiesel.
2.B. Quantify the costs/benefits and economies-of-scale and size required for processing peanuts as biodiesel for on-farm use.
2.C. Examine the value-added opportunities for the co-products from peanut feedstocks used for biodiesel.
3. Develop a sustainable, on-farm fuel production and processing system using peanut as a biodiesel feedstock.
3.A. Develop economic whole-system transition and management strategies for irrigated and non-irrigated organic peanut-cotton-corn production.
3.B. Determine the added identity preservation costs to handle, process, and market organic crops, and develop methods to reduce added costs.
3.C. Determine post-harvest quality attributes of organically produced crops.
4. Develop dedicated organic peanut-cotton-corn production, transition, and management systems for the Southeast.
1b.Approach (from AD-416):
For each of the objectives, a comprehensive cost and return analysis will be conducted. Representative case farms will be constructed in a whole farm planning system (WholeFarm) framework to compare the feasibility of each objective individually, and to compare the options against each other. The overall goal is to determine how the system components will economically and technically integrate into an individual farm operation by evaluating changes in net farm income, crop and livestock production, energy use, and natural resources. The purpose of this research is to determine the impact of the results from the objectives on whole farm net income utilizing representative case farms that will be specified to encompass a wide variety of farm structures and sizes to address the needs of peanut producers. Comprehensive post-harvest quality evaluations will be conducted to study the impact on the post-harvest handling and processing segments of the industry to ensure that farm level decisions will not ultimately lead to the reduced competitiveness of U.S. peanuts and peanut products. Central to this research is technology transfer. As this research is being conducted, there will be a parallel effort in the development and validation of expert systems designed to improve management decisions to expedite technology transfer and industry adoption. The overall goal of this research is to conduct systems research related to irrigation, tillage, crop rotation sequences, on-farm generation of biodiesel, and organic production of peanut, cotton, and corn. The impacts of this research will be examined on the entire agricultural production system and not limited to one aspect of production management or one segment of the peanut industry. A holistic view of this research will be taken from the individual objectives to provide relevant information and management strategies for producers, handlers, processors, and related industry and governmental agencies.
Research and field demonstration plots were established in the Southeast peanut producing region to continue investigations related to crop rotations, irrigation scheduling (timing and amount), conservation tillage, and application of Biochar as a soil amendment. Significant data and information that will sustain peanut competitiveness was obtained focusing on reduced per unit cost of production, and improved water use efficiency of cropping systems. At each location soil, environment, and plant monitoring equipment was installed and production inputs were tracked in the Farm Suite model for economic analyses. Development of a new irrigation scheduling tool for peanut, cotton, and corn called Primed Acclimation is continuing. Continuing research on the first Southeast U.S. cropping systems research project using Biochar in an irrigation by Biochar amount study to address improvements in water availability, crop productivity, and economic returns associated with Biochar. This is a long term study to provide the Southeast U.S. agricultural sector with data and information on the effectiveness of Biochar in crop production which will be used by producers for farm management decisions and local entrepreneurs interested in producing and distributing Biochar. A new research project was initiated to study the effect of flowering interruption (chemically and manually) at prescribed times on peanut yield, grade, processing characteristics, flavor, and aflatoxin.
Improved irrigation scheduling model. Research and development on an improved irrigation scheduling model for peanuts, corn, and cotton was continued and will be completed soon. “Primed Acclimation” is the regulated withholding of irrigation during specific growth stages to cause physiological changes related to improved water use efficiency. The “Primed Acclimation” model showed slight yield increases and savings in irrigation water in peanuts and cotton compared to traditional irrigation scheduling.
The first stage of an organic crop production study. The first stage of an organic crop production study in irrigated and non-irrigated peanut, cotton, and corn was successfully completed. An objective of this project was to develop improved methods for managing organic production as well as defining the required price for organic commodities that make them equal in profitability with conventionally produced crops. Studies concluded that under certain yield and price combinations, organic crop production could offer economic feasible alternatives. Manuscript and technical bulletin is being prepared to document these findings.
Spokas, K.A., Cantrell, K.B., Novak, J.M., Archer, D.W., Ippolito, J.A., Collins, H.P., Boateng, A.A., Lima, I.M., Lamb, M.C., Mcaloon, A.J., Lentz, R.D., Nichols, K.A. 2012. Biochar: A synthesis of its agronomic impact beyond carbon sequestration. Journal of Environmental Quality. 41(4):973-989.
Dobrow, M., Ferrell, J., Faircloth, W.H., Macdonald, G., Brecke, B., Erickson, J. 2012. Effect of cover crop and premergence herbicides on the control of ALS-Resistant Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) in peanut. Peanut Science. 38(1):73-77.
Foshee, W.G., Blythe, E.K., Goff, W.D., Faircloth, W.H., Patterson, M.G. 2008. Response of Young Pecan Trees to Trunk and Foliar Applications of Glyphosate. HortScience. 43(2):399-402.
Rowland, D., Faircloth, W., Payton, P.R., Tissue, D., Ferrell, J., Sorensen, R.B., Butts, C.L. 2012. Primed acclimation of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) through the use of deficit irrigation timed to crop developmental periods. Agricultural Water Management. 113:85-95.