2010 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
1) Identify new wheat cultivars to improve soft wheat quality for Kraft North American flour sourcing.
2) Application of soft wheat testing to non-traditional germplasm for Kraft Foods International and for use in germplasm exchange programs.
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
North American Plan of Work for 2010
A) Identify wheat cultivars to improve quality while controlling cost in Kraft North American flour sourcing
1) Eastern US: Use quality data from Soft Wheat Quality Laboratory to nominate, with breeding programs’ cooperation, cultivars for the strong-soft pipeline (Soft Wheat Quality Laboratory lead).
i. Initial evaluation based on lactic acid SRC followed by contact to programs
ii. Include lines confirmed by programs in field testing at Wooster for head-to-head evaluation including: advanced milling, wire-cut baking, and alveograph
iii. Summarize research results and provide to breeding programs and Kraft for inclusion in their individual product development plans
2) Testing of Cultivars for Portland Bakery (Western Wheat Quality Laboratory Lead).
i. Evaluate check samples and new cultivars from 2 winter wheat locations and 3 spring wheat locations in the immediate draw area of the flour mill supplying Kraft Portland.
ii. Collaborate on components of Eastern US program.
B) Whole Wheat Flour Work.
Continue previous work on methods surrounding whole wheat flour with the goal to understand why non-starch polysaccharide concentration and cross-linking can account for significant differences between white flour performance and whole wheat flour performance of a cultivar. Two new areas of work will be conducted in the next year.
1) Particle size analysis and cookie baking with different screen sizes in Comil bran processor to test bran particle size effect on quality and lactic acid strength in a low water-cracker dough. The later test will use a Kiefer rig on a Tx-TA2 instrument to predict extensograph data.
2) Determine the mineral, vitamin and fiber content of soft white wheat across years, market class and regions through joint testing with Kraft Foods.
International Plan of Work
A) Work with grain and cultivar suppliers to Kraft International to improve quality of soft wheat
1) Review by e-mail or other report format quality data from grain suppliers and cultivar development programs that supply Kraft in Asia, Latin America and Europe. From report data, identify quality testing methods that can be improve North American soft wheat evaluations.
2) Increase the robustness of prediction models of soft wheat quality to include the range of grain types that are produced around the world. Most prediction models of soft wheat quality are developed for very narrow germplasm pools. Adding international germplasm to prediction models will improve our ability to predict quality and to select improved US germplasm.
B) One in-person review of science in international markets per year of the grant.
Location to be determined by Kraft Global Biscuit group. Timing to be jointly agreed by USDA and Kraft.
Report of Work.
A summary report will be presented in January 2011 at the Pacific North West Quality Council. Preliminary reports of work will be presented in November 2010 to the Kraft Flour Task Force meeting in Toledo.
A summary of wheat quality data from 2009 harvest identified the following wheats as being within the parameters set by Kraft for their flour quality needs: Washington State – ‘Diva’, Ohio – ‘Kenton’, ‘AGI 401’, ‘Bonafide’, OH02-264-58, ‘Jordan’, Michigan White Wheat – ‘Ambassador’, and Ontario – ‘Red Ruby’ and ‘Red Amber’. Based on evaluations conducted at the USDA-ARS Western Wheat Quality Laboratory and the Soft Wheat Quality Laboratory, cultivars that were in the range of high water absorption or below the target range of gluten strength normally excluded by Kraft purchasing included: Washington State - Xerpha, Ohio – ‘Sunburst’, Michigan and Ontario -‘Emmit’.
Whole grain flour sampled from Ohio and commercial mills were submitted for nutritional profiles to update the USDA standard reference. The new ‘All-in-One’ fiber method (AOAC 2009.1) was utilized. Both year and cultivar were significant contributors to the variation in fiber for the Ohio study. For the commercial study only minor variation was found for fiber content.