2013 Annual Report
The pheromone of the BMSB that was isolated and identified by ARS in 2011 was synthesized, and during 2012, was tested in the field by scientists and growers in 10 states throughout the country. Larger quantities of the pheromone have been synthesized and are being tested during the 2013 season (Objective 1. Develop and integrate sustainable pest control technologies into deciduous tree fruit production systems).
Hormones and associated metabolites that affect bud break and shoot growth were determined in growth units and tree sap of apple trees grown on size-controlling rootstocks. The metabolic profiles strongly indicated the root graft and shoot tips are the key sites of size-control. Results support the hypothesis that rootstock controls the size of the tree but the scion controls the distribution of carbon within the tree crown.
Hormones and genes that control bud break and branch growth were identified and measured in peach trees with distinctive architectures. Trees with upright branches had reduced branch density and hormonally-regulated gene expression that was distinctive in comparison with trees with horizontally-oriented branches. This discovery will contribute to genetic and cultural management of fruit trees for orchard automation (Objective 2. Develop and integrate new horticultural technologies and strategies into deciduous tree fruit production systems to improve apple and peach fruit quality).
The vision system was refined to create 3D models of dormant apple trees in the laboratory for the purposes of robotic pruning research and physiological/genetic/horticultural studies. The number and type of cameras were determined for accurate models to be generated by algorithms developed in-house. Algorithms and software have been developed to determine the shape and architecture of bare apple trees and a rule-driven decision system for automatic pruning. The computer vision work is being refined in the laboratory and a platform-supported system has been fabricated for the field for trial (Objective 3. Develop and integrate new automation and mechanization technologies into deciduous tree fruit production systems to improve apple and peach production efficiency).
Wright, S.E., Leskey, T.C., Jacome, I., Pinero, J.C., Prokopy, R.J. 2012. Integration of insecticidal, phagostimulatory, and visual elements of an attract-and-kill system for apple maggot fly (Diptera: Tephritidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 105:1548-1556.
Leskey, T.C., Short, B.D., Butler, B.R., Wright, S.E. 2012. Impact of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stal) in Mid-Atlantic tree fruit orchards in the United States: case studies of commercial management. Psyche. DOI:10/1155/2013/535062.
Leskey, T.C., Hamilton, G., Nielsen, A., Polk, D., Rodrigues-Saona, C., Bergh, C., Herbert, D., Kuhar, T., Pfeiffer, D., Dively, G., Hooks, R., Raupp, M., Shrewsbury, P., Krawczyk, G., Shearer, P., Whalen, J., Koplinka-Loehr, C., Myers, E., Inkley, D., Hoelmer, K.A., Lee, D., Wright, S.E. 2012. Pest status of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stal) in the USA. Outlooks on Pest Management. 23:218-226.
Leskey, T.C., Lee, D., Short, B.D., Wright, S.E. 2012. Impact of insecticides on the invasive Halyomorpha halys (Stal) (Hemiptera:Pentatomidae): analysis on the insecticide lethality. Journal of Economic Entomology. 105:1726-1735.
Zhang, A., Leskey, T.C. 2013. Sex pheromone dispenser type and trap design affect capture of dogwood borer. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 39:390-397.
Lee, D., Wright, S.E., Leskey, T.C. 2013. Impact of insecticide residue exposure on the invasive pest, Halyomorpha halys (Stal) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): analysis of adult mobility. Journal of Economic Entomology. 106(1):150-158.
Joseph, S., Bergh, C., Wright, S.E., Leskey, T.C. 2013. Factors affecting captures of brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in baited pyramid traps. Journal of Entomological Science. 48:43-51.
Leskey, T.C., Wright, S.E., Saguez, J., Vincent, C. 2012. Incidental contact with insecticides and fungicides on plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), movement and mortality: implications for pest management. Pest Management Science. 69:464-470.
Lee, D., Wright, S.E., Boiteau, G., Vincent, C., Leskey, T.C. 2013. Effectiveness of glues for harmonic radar tag attachment on Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and their impact on adult survivorship and mobility. Environmental Entomology. 42:515-523.
Tworkoski, T., Miller, S.S., Scorza, R. 2013. Effects of size-controlling rootstocks on growth and yield of peach trees with upright and spreading growth habits. Journal of American Pomological Society. 67(2):89-94.