2013 Annual Report
2012-13: No funds received; no work done. 2011-12: Prototype cost effective formulation for Pacific threadfin: Based on an 8-week feeding trial, established a diet formulation containing 26% fishmeal and 33% soybean meal, which showed the same effect on growth performance of fish as a diet formulated with 50% fishmeal. This suggests the possibility of a decreased dependence on fishmeal for moi culture.
Comparison of different lab feed processing methods for Pacific threadfin: Prototype cost effective diets with 33% soybean meal and 26% fishmeal were processed using different methods (cold forming extrusion, pelleting with no steam and pelleting with steam). The processing methods did not cause a significant effect on the dietary quality of fish growth although the pelleting with steam method tended to promote higher growth in fish. A long term trial (>8 week) may be needed to further confirm this finding.
Taurine stimulated the growth performance of Pacific threadfin fed a low fishmeal diet: An 8 week feeding trial demonstrated that supplementation of 0.3-0.6% taurine in a diet containing 33% soybean meal and 26% fishmeal significantly increased growth performance of Pacific threadfin, suggesting that taurine supplementation may be necessary for a plant based diet to obtain optimal growth and feed utilization for moi culture.
Utilization of DDGS (dry distilled grain soluble) in a low fishmeal diet for Pacific threadfin: A low fat DDGS was used to replace soybean meal protein in a low fishmeal (26%) diet for Pacific threadfin. Test diets with 0-20% DDGS did not affect growth rate and survival after 8 week feeding trial, suggesting the potential application of this ingredient in a cost effective feed for culture of the Pacific threadfin.
Nutrient analysis of Island co-products: The following local products or byproducts were analyzed, 2 microalgae meal products, 2 sea weeds, 7 fungal samples, 3 fishery byproducts, 9 oilseed presscakes, taro skin, and a banana meal product. Nutrient analysis included crude protein, crude lipid, ash, dry matter, fiber, minerals, gross energy, amino acids, fatty acids, carotenoid pigments, and/or protein pigments. Some of these ingredients have been used to formulate diets for fish and shrimp trials.
A defatted microalgae meal was used as a protein ingredient to partially replace fishmeal in diets for Pacific white shrimp: This study demonstrated that the defatted microalgae meal could replace up to 50% fishmeal protein without any adverse effect on growth performance of shrimp. A manuscript for this trial has been published in Aquaculture, referred to by many microalgae and biofuel researchers and selected one of the Top 5 most-downloaded articles in Aquaculture in 2012.
Develop commercially applicable feed processing techniques that optimize economic potential and limit waste: A workshop was held focusing on how to utilize co-products from the biofuel industry in aquatic feeds. Defatted algae meal, distilled dry grain solids, and oil seed press cakes were used as examples in feed formulations for shrimp, abalone and moi. Development of an extruded standard reference diet (SRD) for Shrimp, Pacific threadfin and Amberjack, were developed the previous year and 3 SRD diets for Urchin (uni), Opihi (limpet), and Abalone were also formulated and manufactured. The Biofuels co-product workshop listed all the SRDs defined in nutrient profile, ingredient and ingredient content, extrusion barrel and screw configuration, processing parameters, and the final pellet physical quality for each of the feeds manufactured.
Major Accomplishments Over the Life of the Project:
This project has achieved the following accomplishments:.
Research also demonstrated .
Finally, the development of standard research diets where ingredients were defined, open ingredient formulation with defined nutrient profiles of the diet and processing equipment set up, and processing conditions (temperature, moisture and time profiles) were documented and opened for the SRD feeds made for Pacific Threadfin (Moi), Pacific white shrimp, Longfin Amberjack (Kahala), Opihi (Limpet), Sea Urchin and Abalone Enzo.