2009 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
The objective of this research is to characterize trait variation of the USDA-ARS Vitis germplasm collections. The phenotypic trait information collected from this study, in combination with the genotypic information generated from the grape SNP discovery project led by Dr. Ed Buckler at ARS, will significantly advance our knowledge and capability in identifying useful allelic variation in the Vitis germplasm for grape improvement. In addition, one mapping population relevant to winegrape breeding will also be characterized to examine how well the research results of trait variation from Vitis germplasm can be extended to practical breeding material.
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
Phenotype USDA-ARS Vitis germplasm collections:
1. Phenotyping berry shape, berry color, berry length and width, and cluster size per Standard Biodiversity International Descriptors for all non-hybrid Vitis germplasm accessions (about 700) from the USDA-ARS Geneva Vitis Clonal Repository. This work will be closely coordinated with the ongoing phenotyping effort at the USDA-ARS Davis Vitis Clonal Repository and the ARS grape SNP discovery project of Dr. Ed Buckler et al.
2. Analyzing key primary and secondary metabolites of 600 Vitis germplasm accessions from the USDA-ARS Vitis Clonal Repositories at Davis, CA and Geneva, NY. A total of 3,600 samples (3 replicates x 2 years x 600 accessions) will be analyzed.
Phenotype one mapping population relevant to winegrape breeding:
1. Analyzing key primary and secondary metabolites of the Horizon x Illinois 547-1 mapping population developed by Dr. Bruce Reisch at Cornell. A total of 400 samples (2 replicates x 2 years x 100 lines) will be analyzed.
Analyze phenotypic data and carry out marker-trait association analysis:
1. Characterizing properties of the phenotypic trait variation investigated.
2. Collaborating with Dr. Ed Buckler and his group to carry out marker-trait association analysis.
3. Validating association analysis results with linkage mapping data.
A HPLC protocol for analyzing phenolics was developed. After comparing several C18 columns that have been used by different research groups in separating and quantifying phenolic compounds in grape berries, we determined that an Inertsil ODS3 column on a HP1100 Liquid Choromatograph can allow us to detect and measure over 50 phenolic compounds with minimal co-elution.
The second step was to analyze the Vitis berry samples collected from the field. Each berry sample was ground in liquid nitrogen to a fine powder after removing the seeds. Anthocyanins and other phenolics were extracted using 0.5g berry tissue and analyzed using the method described above. We have finished the HPLC runs on the berry samples collected in the fall of 2008, including 306 samples of wild Vitis species, 78 samples of hybrids, and 359 samples of V. vinifera. Data analysis is in progress. In the coming year, similar analysis will be repeated for these samples. These results will provide an assessment of the range of variation of these important grape quality traits in the USDA Vitis germplasm, which will in turn accelerate the development of grape varieties with superior quality.
Monitoring activities for this project includes meetings, emails, phone and annual reports. Also, the ADODR makes site visits to the cooperator’s laboratory and vineyard sites. Any significant deviation from the agreed approaches and methodologies is discussed.