2010 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
The objectives of this research are: (1) Optimize a milling procedure for sorghum to produce high quality flour, (2) characterize milling fractions of sorghum produce by various milling procedures, and (3) relate physical attributes of sorghum grain to milling performance.
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
Optimize milling of sorghum under tightly controlled conditions with different sorghum samples that vary in physical attributes such as hardness and diameter. Different mill streams will be isolated and characterized for their chemical properties and functionality in various food products.
White, food-grade sorghum was used to produce flour with varying extraction rates (60%, 80%, 100%). Each flour was then re-milled using a pin-mill at different rates (no pin-milling, low-speed, and high-speed) to create flours that varied in composition and particle size. Each flour was analyzed for composition, total starch content, particle size distribution, damaged starch, and water absorption. Breads were made from flours and were evaluated for differences in specific volume, crumb properties, and crumb firmness. Differences were found among the sorghum flours in terms of fiber and starch levels. The initial extraction rate the flour was milled at affected flour particle size, water absorption, and starch damage levels.
Across all samples, breads produced from flour with the lowest extraction rate had higher specific volumes, better crumb properties, and lower crumb firmness. For all flour treatments the bread characteristics were significantly affected by flour properties, especially particle size, starch damage, and fiber levels.
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