2010 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
The goal of this agreement is to carry out a collaborative research effort among PBARC, The College of Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resource Management (CAFNRM) at the University of Hawaii at Hilo (UHH), and the College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (CTAHR) at the University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM) that addresses important agriculture problems in Hawaii. The specific problem to address is determined through consultation and agreement among the agriculture college deans of CAFNRM and CTAHR and the director of PBARC. The main objective of this SCA is to evaluate the usefulness of regionally grown feedstock for aquaculture and livestock.
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
In 2002, congress provided a set amount of funds to PBARC with the mandate that the funds should be split three ways among CAFNRM, CTAHR, and PBARC. The intent is to develop a mutually beneficial collaborative research effort that is formulated by the deans and the director of PBARC. The deans of CAFNRM and CTAHR, and the director of PBARC met and agreed to develop a research effort to evaluate the usefulness of regionally grown feedstock and co-products for aquaculture and livestock. Each institute would focus on research areas in which they have strengths and which would move the institutions closer to achieving the stated objective. To carryout the research plan, each dean will put out a call for proposals to their respective colleges for grant proposals to address the objective over a five year period. The proposals will be reviewed and selected by the deans and the director of PBARC, and any advisors that they may choose. To ensure that the research is focused on the objective and to assess progress, the investigators of the selected grants, the deans, and the director will meet annually to evaluate the work. Following the annual meeting, changes in the research personnel or focus may take place if needed. PBARC will have a research effort towards this objective but it will not have a call for proposals since the funds originally allocated to PBARC became part of their base budget. To maintain a degree of flexibility, the deans may use a small part of the funds to support other projects that may not be directly related to the main objective. These small projects may take no more than 49% of the total available for this SCA, must aid PBARC in meeting its mandated research objectives, must meet the requirements outlined in this Approach, must meet its internal milestones as described by the principal investigator(s) and must be developed as a partnership between a PBARC scientist and a CAFNRM scientist whenever possible although they can include scientists from other institutions or organizations for purposes of leveraging intellectual or fiduciary capital.
Documents SCA with University of Hawaii Hilo. Formerly 5320-43000-014-18S (9/2008).
Supporting Vermiculture & Sustainable Agriculture Production:
A new vermicomposting bin was constructed for faster reproduction of red wiggler and Indian Blue earthworm. The bins allow sequential rearing of colonies with lateral migration of worms between sections to result in increased capacity. Effects of different vermicomposts produced from food waste or shredded paper on mustard cabbage showed increased yields ranging from 6.4% to 9.2% compared to plain compost.
Non Chemical Methods of Pest Control in Greenhouses & Nurseries:
The non-chemical solar hot water soil sterilizer was incorporated into a sustainable technologies greenhouse for year-long production. Solar operated fans will control temperature and humidity. A rain catchment tank with solar pump supplies water to the growing plants and to the solar hot water heater. Initial data show that temperatures lethal to plant nematodes can be attained easily in potting media. Several presentations were made and one paper published (Crop Protection 2: 525-531, 2010).
Fruit trees with greater departure from the vertical were found to have higher densities of white peach scale. A biological control agent was found to be host specific in Hawaii to white peach scale in tests against 8 other potential hosts. Genetic analysis of the biocontrol agent using two different molecular methods resulted in ability to differentiate it from the related E. berlesei and to assess parasitism.
Study of Coastal Wetland Pasture Mulato Grass Potential:
Eight acres of mulatograss was established at the UHH Farm during summer-fall 2009 in a mixture with the forage legume perennial soybean/glycine. Another forage legume, perennial forage peanut did not persist through the spring 2010 drought. Since establishment, the site has been managed by mowing and mob grazing. A grazing study with eight pastures (four per treatment) is planned after fencing is completed.
Separate pots of mulatograss in silty clay soil were cut sequentially after 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks of regrowth during summer, autumn, winter and spring 2009-2010. At the 12-wk cutting all the previously harvested pots were also trimmed and all pots fertilized with urea. Mulatograss growth was vigorous and linear with time during summer and autumn. In winter mulatograss grew well for the first weeks after cutting only. Growth in spring was curvilinear but less vigorous than summer or autumn, suggesting mulatograss production will be seasonal in Hawaii as it is in subtropical South Florida.
Honey Production & Bee Health in Hawaii:
Three pests have invaded Hawaii honey producers; varroa mite, little fire ant and small hive beetle. Presentations to beekeepers were made on how to control these new pests to Hawaii. To enhance marketing, sample products were developed from honey, bees wax, propolis and pollen for local markets and were demonstrated at an agricultural expo, resulting in three commercial products available under the brand name Kulanui.
This project was monitored via progress reports, meetings, and telephone and email communications.