MANAGEMENT AND GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF AGRICULTURAL AND BIOTECHNOLOGICAL MICROBIAL RESOURCES
Project Number: 3620-22410-012-00
Start Date: May 14, 2008
End Date: Apr 23, 2013
Objective 1: Strategically expand the genetic diversity in the ARS Culture Collection and improve associated information for priority microbial genetic resources. Sub-objective 1.A. Acquire from diverse sources samples of food-borne pathogenic bacteria, actinobacteria from equine sources, basidiomycetous yeasts, plant pathogenic fungi, and grain storage molds to fill current gaps in the ARS Culture Collection for these priority microbial strains. Sub-objective 1.B. In consultation with the microbial research community, identify microbial genetic resources associated with discontinued research programs, or held by researchers who are nearing retirement, and attempt to acquire those of strategic importance to current or future agricultural research programs. Objective 2: Conserve priority microbial genetic resources efficiently and effectively, and distribute them and associated information worldwide. Sub-objective 2.A. Conserve more than 90,000 accessions of priority microbial genetic resources and associated information, emphasizing food-borne pathogenic bacteria, actinobacteria from equine sources, basidiomycetous yeasts, plant pathogenic fungi, and grain storage molds, as well as microbes of biomedical and biotechnological importance. Sub-objective 2.B. Back-up at the National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation (NCGRP) approximately 15,000 strains (emphasizing Fusarium) that are currently preserved under liquid nitrogen vapor only at the National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research (NCAUR). Sub-objective 2.C. Continue to improve data management and technology transfer procedures, emphasizing improvements in user interface for the public access catalog system. Sub-Objective 2.D. Distribute on request microbial accessions and information that meet the specific needs of agricultural, biomedical, and biotechnological researchers. Objective 3: Strategically characterize (“genotype”) and evaluate (“phenotype”) priority microbial genetic resources through multigene analyses, and with key morphological, physiological, and biochemical descriptors. Sub-objective 3.A. Develop and apply multigene markers for phylogenetic and genetic diversity analyses of priority microbial genetic resources. Incorporate characterization data into GRIN and/or other databases, and apply the data to providing accurate taxonomic identifications, as well as to predicting the agricultural and biotechnological utility of newly discovered taxa. Sub-objective 3.B. Determine the phenotypic diversity and elucidate the population genetic structure for the Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) species Fusarium graminearum and F. asiacticum. Map their worldwide distribution, as a first step of establishing a molecular surveillance system for the early detection of Fusarium populations introduced to North America.
New species and novel strains of known species of plant pathogens and mycotoxigenic fungi, food-borne pathogens, actinobacteria important to animal health and biotechnology, and yeasts will be isolated from nature or acquired from reports in the literature and from cooperators worldwide. New strain accessions will be cataloged in the collection database, preserved by lyophilization and/or freezing in liquid nitrogen vapor where appropriate, and information related to well characterized strains will be made publicly available on the Collection website. Information provided by ARS Program leadership, national and international microbiology societies and culture collection organizations will identify microbial collections in danger of being lost and important collections will be acquired and accessioned where existing resources permit. The entire collection is secured in a limited access room and records for strain inventory and distribution are maintained on the collection database system. High priority microbial strains held only as frozen preparations under liquid nitrogen vapor phase will be duplicated and shipped to NCGRP for backup in a liquid nitrogen freezer dedicated for microbial germplasm. Strains will be freely distributed to the scientific community worldwide but requestors must provide required documentation or permits before animal or plant pathogenic strains or those requiring Biosafety Level II confinement are distributed. Through phylogenetic analysis of sequences from multiple gene loci, evaluate the diversity and systematics of actinomycetes, Bacillus, Aspergillus, and yeasts of importance to agriculture, food safety, and biotechnology. A multilocus genotyping assay previously developed for identification of FHB species and trichothecene chemotypes will be applied to a global collection of FHB isolates to determine the current distribution and trichothecene chemotype diversity of Fusarium graminearum and F. asiacticum populations. Population diversity and relatedness will then be assessed using a published panel of variable number tandem repeat markers. Differences in pathogen fitness and aggressiveness in individual populations will be evaluated by determining a range of phenotypic characteristics, such as growth, reproduction, and toxin production.