2013 Annual Report
Objective 2. On-line database resources about fungi developed at the SMML will continue to be updated and increased as new specimens are accessioned and new data are published. As funding permits, the nomenclature file will be updated. Additions to the on-line identification systems are made as additional taxa are studied and described by the associated scientists. As unique sequences, i.e. DNA barcodes, are developed for these species, there will be a link to these GenBank sequences. Descriptions and illustrations of invasive fungi will be placed on the Internet as they become available. New software will be evaluated especially Adobe Flex software to facilitate the ability to work efficiently with these databases. Computer programs and operating system software and hardware will be continually under review and incorporated as deemed necessary and useful.
In regard to Objective 1, this past year eighty-one loans were sent nationally and internationally with an equal number returned. An emphasis was placed on obtaining the return of loans that were more than five years overdue. About 14,000 new specimens were accessioned that document research throughout the world. An increasing number of requests for specimens on loan include the desire to destructively sample specimens to obtain DNA. Personnel at the US National Fungus Collections have been revising policies and discussing these issues. We desire to support this research while protecting specimens for methods available in the coming centuries. These activities contribute to fulfillment of objective 1 of this service project as stated in the plan to curate specimens in the U.S. National Fungus Collections as an international reference resource for use by scientists throughout the world. A number of tours were given to in-house personnel as well as visiting scientists.
In regard to Objective 2 concerning the development of on-line resources about the systematics of fungi, especially plant pathogens of importance to scientists and plant quarantine officials, about 50,000 new fungus-host reports were added to the worldwide database of fungi on plants around the world for a total of over 900,000 reports. This represents the most comprehensive database of fungi on plants in existence. The 300,000 card file reporting fungi on plant hosts was scanned and an application developed that allows these reports to be edited and included in the fungus-host reports. The nomenclature of about 70,000 scientific names of fungi on plants has been updated allowing users to synthesize data reported for synonymous names of one species. As new literature is obtained with the fungus-host records entered, the nomenclature of those articles is reviewed and used to update the nomenclature records. Moving to one name for fungi has been the focus of the nomenclature this year with records updated as decisions are made concerning which fungal name to use. All data are available at: http://nt.ars-grin.gov/fungaldatabases/.
Contractors working with SMML have implemented a new security system for remote access to data entry and revised code on the public web pages to remove potential security issues. The contractors continue to assist in addressing security issues and in purging code and databases of unused elements. SMML hosts databases for the Nematology Laboratory (NL) and Floral and Nursery Products Research Unit (FNPRU).
Rossman, A.Y., Seifert, K., Samuels, G.J. 2013. Genera in the Bionectriaceae, Hypocreaceae, and Nectriaceae (Hypocreales) proposed for acceptance or rejection. IMA Fungus. 4(1):41-51.
Zhang, N., Rossman, A.Y., Seifert, K., Bennett, J.W., Cai, G., Hillman, B., Luo, J., Meyer, W., Molnar, T., Tacych, M., White, J., Cai, L., Manamgoda, D., Schoch, C. 2013. Impacts of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (Melbourne Code) on the scientific names of plant pathogenic fungi. American Phytopathological Society. DOI: 10.1094/APSnetFeatures–2013-0617.