2008 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
Develop pinkeye-type southernpea (cowpea) lines that exhibit yield potential equivalent to leading blackeye-type bean cultivars. Identify host-plant resistance to emerging viral diseases (e.g., Tomato spotted wilt) in southernpea genetic resources and determine the genetic control of resistance. Develop open-pollinated advanced breeding lines of sweet peppers (Capsicum annuum) and Habanero-type peppers (C. chinense) highly resistant to root-knot nematodes. Develop Habanero-type F1 hybrid pepper cultivars which are tolerant to heat stress and highly resistant to Tomato spotted wilt virus, Pepper mottle virus, and root-knot nematodes.
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
The southernpea pinkeye-type cultivar GreenPack-DG and the high-yielding blackeye bean cultivar California Blackeye No. 46 will be used as the parental lines to initiate a plant breeding project with the major goal of breaking the apparent yield barrier in pinkeye-type southernpeas; the two cultivars will be crossed and pedigree and single-seed-descent breeding procedures will be employed to quickly advance progeny populations three generations per year (spring field cycle, fall field cycle, and a winter greenhouse cycle). Efforts to identify sources of resistance to Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in southernpea will involve the development of an efficient and effective methodology for evaluating germplasm and then the progressive evaluation of all available sources of resistance to other cowpea viruses, a collection of named southernpea and blackeye bean cultivars, and the 720 accession core of the USDA cowpea germplasm collection. If a source of TSWV resistance is identified, the methods of classical genetics will be employed to determine the genetic control of that resistance. A backcross breeding procedure will be used to incorporate a dominant root-knot nematode resistance gene into several non-bell, open-pollinated, sweet-type peppers; a similar approach will be used to incorporate a dominant resistance gene into open-pollinated Habanero-type peppers. An effort will be initiated to develop a series of candidate F1 hybrid Habanero-type cultivars that are resistant to root-knot nematodes and the major viral diseases and tolerant to heat stress. The USDA-developed, open-pollinated, Habanero-type cultivar TigerPaw-NR will be crossed with open-pollinated Habanero-type accessions from the Texas A&M University; TigerPaw-NR is a well adapted, high yielding cultivar that is homozygous for a dominant gene conditioning resistance to root-knot nematodes and the Texas accessions are homozygous for dominant genes conditioning resistance to Tomato spotted wilt and Pepper mottle viruses, compact plant habit, and the ability to set fruit during periods of high temperatures.
A program was initiated to develop pinkeye-type southernpea lines that exhibit yield potential equivalent to leading blackeye-type bean cultivars; the pinkeye-type cultivar GreenPack-DG was hybridized with the cultivar California Backeye No. 46 and the F1 plants were grown to produce F2 seed. Efforts were initiated to assemble a diverse collection of cowpea germplasm for evaluation for reaction to Tomato spotted wilt virus. Efforts were continued to develop various types of open-pollinated Habanero and sweet-type peppers that exhibit high levels of resistance to root-knot nematodes. The program to develop a red-fruited, Habanero-type pepper that is highly resistant to root-knot nematodes was completed; the advanced breeding line PA-559 is ready for release. A breeding program to develop root-knot nematode resistant pimento-type peppers is nearing completion; a replicated field test to evaluate six candidate cultivars was completed. Efforts to incorporate a root-knot nematode resistance gene into sweet banana, sweet cherry, and cubanella types of sweet peppers were continued. A program was initiated to develop F1 hybrid cultivars of Habanero-type peppers that are resistant to root-knot nematodes and multiple virus diseases and tolerant to heat stress; the USDA-developed, root-knot nematode resistant cultivar TigerPaw-NR was crossed with various Habanero-type breeding lines that exhibit tolerance to heat stress and resistance to virus diseases. This research contributes to National Program 301, Plant Genetic Resources, Genomics, and Genetics Improvement. It is relevant to Component 3 (Genetic Improvement of Crops), Problem Statement 3C (Germplasm Enhancement – Release of Improved Genetic Resources and Varieties).
5.Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations
A considerable portion of the resources of this project is directed towards the development of southernpea and pepper cultivars needed by small farmers and limited resource producers. Several of the southernpea and pepper cultivars under development are targeted for use by market gardeners.
|Number of the New MTAs (providing only)||1|
|Number of Non-Peer Reviewed Presentations and Proceedings||2|