Location: Genomics and Gene Discovery
2011 Annual Report
The high molecular weigh glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) proteins are major determinants of the quality of food products made from wheat flours yet the mechanisms of how they influence dough processing properties are still poorly understood. Understanding the molecular bases of how these proteins unique to wheat function will provide new knowledge in improving the quality and nutritional properties of food derived from wheat. To this end, scientists at WRRC utilized an in vitro reconstitution system to study the contributions of variant allele protein products and specific domains of HMW-GS proteins in dough properties. Equal amount of Dx and Dy-type subunits was found to result in greatest synergistic effects and that the length of the repetitive domain in these proteins is important for dough processing.
Low temperature is a major abiotic stress that limits the growth, productivity and geographical distribution of agricultural crops. Even in established agricultural production areas, seasonal or episodic freezing events can lead to significant crop loss. The identification and characterization of genetic factors that are critical for low temperature tolerance are needed for the development and improvement of germplasms with a wide spectrum of tolerance to extreme temperatures. Expression of genes in cold-hardy and cold-sensitive cultivars of wheat was compared using DNA microarrays. Results identified genes that may play critical roles in the development of tolerance to low temperature. Fundamental insights into the regulation of these cold responsive genes were gained.
Data derived from the next generation sequencing (NGS) of total genomic DNA from diploid wheat Aegilops tauschii (D-genome contributor) were annotated and used to develop a genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery pipeline. A total of 195,631 putative SNPs dispersed across the entire A. tauschii genome were discovered.
The on-going project to develop and utilize Brachypodium as a model system for Triticeae research for grain quality and other traits has progressed significantly. The sequence of the genome of Brachypodium distachyon was completed through collaborative efforts. A high-density genetic linkage map was generated and used to compare the Brachypodium genome features to other grasses.
Akhunov, E.D., Akhunova, A., Anderson, O.D., Anderson, J., Blake, N., Clegg, M., Coleman-Derr, D., Conley, E., Crossman, C., Deal, K., Dubcovsky, J., Gill, B., Gu, Y.Q., Hadam, J., Heo, H., Huo, N., Lazo, G.R., Luo, M., Ma, Y., Matthews, D.E., Mcguire, P., Morrell, P., Qualset, C., Renfro, J., Tabanao, D., Talbert, L., Tian, C., Toleno, D., Warburton, M., You, F., Zhang, W., Dvorak, J. 2010. Nucleotide diversity maps reveal variation in diversity among wheat genomes and chromosomes. Biomed Central (BMC) Genomics. 11:702-710.
Massa, A.N., Wanjugi, H., Deal, K.R., Chan, A.P., Gu, Y.Q., Luo, M., Anderson, O.D., Rabinomics, P.D., Dvorak, J., Devos, K.M., O'Brien, K., Maiti, R., You, F. 2011. Gene space dynamics during the evolution of Aegilops tauschii, Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza sativa, and Sorghum bicolor genomes. Molecular Biology and Evolution. Available at: http://mbe.oxfordjournalsorg/content/early/2011/04/06/molbev.msr080.long. DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msr080.
Stamova, B., Chingcuanco, D.L., Beckles, D. 2010. Transcriptomic analysis of starch biosynthesis in the developing grain of hexaploid wheat. International Journal of Plant Genomics. Available at: http://www.hindawi com/journals/ijpg/2009/407426/. doi:10.1155/2009/407426.
Chingcuanco, D.L., Ganeshan, S., You, F., Fowler, B., Chibbar, R., Mcguire, P., Anderson, O.D. 2011. Transcriptome profiling and expression analyses of genes critical to wheat adaptation to low temperature. Biomed Central (BMC) Genomics. 1:299.