2009 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
The long-term objectives of this project are the following:.
1)Develop improved varieties of pea, chickpea, and lentil that have enhanced resistance to diseases and abiotic stresses along with improved nutritional and processing traits;.
2)Characterize the genetic basis for agronomically important traits in pea, lentil and chickpea;.
3)Identify and characterize the genetic domains in pathogens of these crops that are responsible for disease, and.
4)Develop improved methods for detecting pathogens and screening for disease resistance.
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
Identify and select improved germplasm and cultivars for pea, lentil, and chickpea through systematic evaluation under biotic and abiotic stress conditions to identify tolerant or resistant types for release to stakeholders.Identify genetic factors through classical breeding methods contributing to cold tolerance and winter hardiness in pea and lentil germplasm. Saturate genetic maps for the genomic regions that control Ascochyta blight resistance (ABR) in chickpea for fine mapping and identification of molecular markers for selection. Saturate genetic maps to identify markers linked to a broad range of agronomically important traits in pea, lentil, and chickpea. Increase mechanistic understanding of host-pathogen interactions to improve breeding and selection strategies for disease resistance in pea, lentil, and chickpea by challenging plants with respective pathogens and studying disease responses and pathogen biology. Formerly 5348-21000-014-00D (3/08).
Field trials were conducted in Washington and Idaho in 2009 to evaluate performance of advanced and preliminary breeding lines of lentil, chickpea and dry pea. Twelve advanced lentil breeding lines and 14 advanced pea breeding lines were planted in the fall of 2008 and evaluated for winter hardiness in two locations in WA. Sixty two advanced spring lentil breeding lines, representing all the major market classes of lentils grown in the US, are being evaluated in three locations in WA and a single location in ID. Twenty advanced chickpea breeding lines are being evaluated at two locations in WA and a single location in ID. Twenty advanced green pea and 14 advanced yellow pea breeding lines are being evaluated at two locations in WA and two locations in ID.
A new disease of lentil, Aphanomyces root rot, has been identified in ID. Methods have been developed for screening lentils for tolerance to Aphanomyces root rot in the greenhouse. To date 33 advanced lentil breeding lines and 284 lentil accessions from the National Plant Germplasm System have been evaluated for tolerance to the disease. Several breeding lines and accessions appear to be promising sources of tolerance.
Release of Essex Lentil. Lentils, which are very nutritious and in high demand as an export crop, confer several benefits to small grain production, including breaking disease cycles, improving weed control, and producing nitrogen that can be used as fertilizer in the subsequent grain crops. Improved varieties are required to enhance profitability and market options for growers and processors. In 2009, ARS researchers in Pullman, WA released “Essex”, a high yielding Eston type lentil. Essex has out yielded the industry standard variety Eston by an average of 21% over 39 site/years of evaluation in WA, ID, MT, and ND. Small seeded lentils such as Essex have an annual value estimated at $25 million. Essex will provide growers with a higher yielding variety of the Eston market class, which will increase revenues for growers while enhancing the long term environmental sustainability of small grain cropping systems.
|Number of New Germplasm Releases||1|
Njambere, E.N., Chen, W., Frate, C., Wu, B., Temple, S.R., Muehlbauer, F.J. 2008. Stem and Crown Rot of Chickpea in California Caused by Sclerotinia trifoliorum. Plant Disease.92:917-922.
Vandemark, G.J., Fourie, D., Miklas, P.N. 2008. Genotyping with Real-time PCR Reveals Recessive Epistasis Between Independent QTL Conferring Resistance to Common Bacterial Blight in Dry Bean. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Genetics.117:513-522.
Attanayake, R., Glawe, D., Dugan, F.M., Chen, W. 2009. Erysiphe trifolii causing powdery mildew of lentil (Lens culinaris). Plant Disease.93:797-803.
Chen, W. 2008. Chickpea Diseases: Ecology and Control. Encyclopedia of Pest Management, 1:1,1-5.
Dugan, F.M., Glawe, D.A., Attanayake, R.N., Chen, W. 2009. The Importance of Reporting New Host-Fungus Records for Ornamental and Regional Crops. APS Net Plant Pathology Online. Plant Health Progress doi:10.1094/PHP-2009-0512-01-RV.
Chen, W., Basandrai, A., Basandrai, D., Banniza, S., Bayaa, B., Buchwaldt, L., Davidson, J., Larsen, R.C., Rubiales, D., Taylor, P. 2009. Diseases and Their Management, pages 262-281 in: The Lentil: Botany, Production and Uses, Erskine, W., Muehlbauer, F.J., Sarker, A. and Sharma, B. (eds.). CAB International, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom.
Chilvers, M., Peever, T., Akamatsu, H., Chen, W., Muehlbauer, F.J. 2008. Didymella rabiei primary inoculum release from chickpea debris in relation to weather variables in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology. 2007. 29: 4, 365-371. 33 ref.