2008 Annual Report
2. Develop better agronomic practices for the Florida sugarcane industry.
3. Identify alleles or genes that can be used in molecular marker-assisted selection to complement the conventional approach of sugarcane cultivar development.
4. Identify agronomic and physiological relationships of sugarcane with stress tolerance to improve sugarcane cultivar development.
This breeding and selection program primarily develops sugarcane cultivars for sand and organic soils in Florida. In 2008, a meeting was held to report to Florida growers on research (underway and completed) to improve cultivar development for sand soils. Presentations reported on research aimed at.
In 2007, a sugarcane rust disease (orange rust) was identified for the first time in Florida. In addition, brown rust has continued to substantially affect sugarcane farmers and the breeding program. For example, in an early selection stage of this program in 2007, only about 300 of 1700 genotypes did not have rust. Currently the program is reviewing options in early selection stages that may result in selection of higher percentages of genotypes that do not have rust.
Research in this project is relevant to Component 2 Crop Informatics, Genomics, and Genetic Analyses and Component 3 Genetic Improvement of Crops in the Action Plan for National Program 301 Plant Genetic Resources, Genomics, and Genetics Improvement. In Component 2, it is relevant to Problem Statement 2C, Genetic Analyses and Mapping of Important Traits. In Component 3, research is relevant to all three problem statements: A. Genetic Theory and Methods of Crop Improvement, B. Capitalizing on Untapped Genetic Diversity, and C. Germplasm Enhancement/Release of Improved Genetic Resources and Varieties.
This research project replaces project #6625-13210-003-00D which expired.
New sugarcane cultivars in Florida are continuously needed for sustained or improved yields, resistance to intense disease pressures, and for improved adaptability to freezes and high water tables. Also, higher yields are needed on sand soils which comprise about 20% of Florida’s sugarcane. Through the cooperative efforts of the ARS Sugarcane Field Station, Canal Point, FL; the University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Everglades Research and Education Center at Belle Glade, FL; and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc. at Clewiston, FL, two new sugarcane cultivars (CP 01-1372 and CPCL 97-2730) were released in Florida in the fall of 2007. These new cultivars will add genetic variability for disease resistance while yielding well in Florida, the state in the U.S. with the highest sugar production; 19% of all sugar produced in the U.S. CP 01-1372 is expected to yield well on all soils on which sugarcane is produced in Florida while CPCL 97-2730 was released specifically for improved yields on sand soils.
This research was in support of National Program 301 Plant Genetic Resources, Genomics, and Genetics Improvement, Component 3 Genetic Improvement of Crops, Problem Statement 3C Germplasm Enhancement/Release of Improved Genetic Resources and Varieties.2. Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers for assessing genetic relationships and diversity in sugarcane germplasm collections.
Assessing the diversity of wild and cultivated germplasm is essential for any breeding program as the wild germplasm usually represents an untapped source of genes to improve yield and to impart resistance to diseases and environmental stresses. The potential of a new DNA marker system (SRAP) that amplifies gene-rich regions of a genome was evaluated for its ability to generate polymorphisms in a set of important wild species of sugarcane and hybrids. The SRAP assays separated the 30 genotypes tested according to the phylogenetic relationships known in sugarcane. With the capability to generate a large number of markers (1364 DNA fragments from 31 primer combinations were produced) that are not neutral, the SRAP system constitutes a robust tool for diversity studies and genetic mapping in sugarcane aimed at introgression of wild alleles with specific value into the cultivated background.
This research was in support of NP 301 Plant Genetic Resources, Genomics, and Genetics Improvement, Component 3 Genetic Improvement of Crops, Problem Statement 3C Germplasm Enhancement/Release of Improved Genetic Resources and Varieties.
5.Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations
Glaz, B.S., Kang, M.S. 2008. Location Contributions Determined via GGE Biplot Analysis of Multievironment Sugarcane Genotype-Performance Trials. Crop Science. 48:941-950 (2008)
Gilbert, R.A., Comstock, J.C., Glaz, B.S., Edme, S.J., Davidson, W.R., Glynn, N.C., Miller, J.D., Tai, P.Y.P. Registration of ‘CP 00-1101’ Sugarcane. Journal of Plant Registrations. 2:95-101. 2008.
Juarez, J., Miller, J.D., Orozco, H., Solares, E., Tai, P.Y.P., Comstock, J.C., Glaz, B.S., Queme De Leon, J., Ovalle, W., Edme, S.J., Glynn, N.C., Deren, C.Registration of ‘CP 88-1165’ Sugarcane. Journal of Plant Registrations. 2:102-109. 2008.
Suman, A., Kimbeng, C., Edme, S.J., Veremis, J.C. 2008. Sequence-Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP) markers for assessing interrelationships and genetic diversity among members of the Saccharum complex. Diversity Plant Genetic Resources Journal. 6:222-231.