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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: ENHANCING CORN WITH RESISTANCE TO AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION AND INSECT DAMAGE

Location: Corn Host Plant Resistance Research

Publications (Clicking on the reprint icon Reprint Icon will take you to the publication reprint.)

Comparison of Inoculation Methods for Evaluating Maize for Resistance to Aspergillus flavus Infection and Aflatoxin Accumulation - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Williams, W.P., Alpe, M., Windham, G.L., Ozkan, S., Mylroie, J.E. 2013. Comparison of two inoculation methods for evaluating maize for resistance to Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation. International Journal of Agronomy. 2013:972316. DOI:10.1155/2013/972316.
Quantitative Trait Loci for Resistance to Aspergillus Ear Rot: Analysis by Linkage Mapping, Characterization of Near-Isogenic Lines and Meta-Analysis - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Mideros, S., Warburton, M.L., Jamann, T., Windham, G.L., Williams, W.P., Nelson, R. 2014. Quantitative trait loci influencing mycotoxin contamination of maize: analysis by linkage mapping, characterization of near-isogenic lines and meta-analysis. Crop Science. 54:127-142.
Genome-wide association analysis for non agronomic traits in maize under well-watered and water-stressed conditions. - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Xu, Y., Warburton, M.L., Sawkins, M., Zhang, X., Setter, T., Xu, Y., Grudloyma, P., Gethi, J., Ribaut, J., Li, W., Zhang, X., Zheng, Y., Yan, J. 2013. Genome-wide association analysis for non agronomic traits in maize under well-watered and water-stressed conditions. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 126(10):2587-96. DOI 10.1007/s00122-013-2158-x.
Characterization of a maize association mapping panel for new sources of Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin accumulation resistance - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Warburton, M.L., Williams, W.P., Windham, G.L., Murray, S., Xu, W., Hawkins, L.K., Franco, J. 2013. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of a maize association mapping panel developed for identification of new sources of resistance to Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin accumulation. Crop Science. 53:2374-2383.
Development of a gene - based marker correlated to reduced aflatoxin accumulation in maize - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Mylroie, J.E., Warburton, M.L., Wilkinson, J.R. 2013. Development of a gene - based marker correlated to reduced aflatoxin accumulation in maize. Euphytica. 194:431-441.
Meta-analyses of QTL for grain yield and anthesis silking interval in 18 maize populations evaluated under water-stressed and well-watered environments - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Samagn, K., Beyene, Y., Warburton, M.L., Tarkegne, A., Mugo, S., Meisel, B., Schabiague, P., Prasanna, B.M. 2013. Meta-analyses of QTL for grain yield and anthesis silking interval in 18 maize populations evaluated under water-stressed and well-watered environments. BMC Genomics. 14:313. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/14/313.
The maize rachis affects Aspergillus flavus movement during ear development - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
(29-Apr-13)
A two-dimenstional proteome reference map of the aflatoxigenic fungus Aspergillus flavus - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Pechanova, O., Pechan, T., Rodriguez, J., Williams, W.P., Brown, A. 2013. A two-dimensional proteome map of the aflatoxigenic fungus Aspergillus flavus. Proteomics. 13:1513-1518. DOI 10.1002/pmic.201100659.
Natural variation in the sequence of PSY1 enhances provitamin A biofortification of yellow maize - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Fu, Z., Chai, Y., Zhou, Y., Yang, X., Warburton, M.L., Xu, S., Cai, Y., Zhang, D., Li, J., Yan, J. 2012. Natural variation in the sequence of PSY1 and frequency of favorable polymorphisms among tropical and temperate maize germplasm. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 126(4):923-935.
Confirming QTL for aflatoxin resistance from Mp313E in different genetic backgrounds - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Willcox, M., Davis, G., Warburton, M.L., Windham, G.L., Abbas, H.K., Betran, J., Holland, J.B., Williams, W.P. 2013. Confirming quantitative trait loci for aflatoxin resistance from Mp313E in different genetic backgrounds. Molecular Breeding. 32(1):15-26.
Diallel analysis of diverse maize germplasm lines for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Henry, W.B., Windham, G.L., Rowe, D.E., Blanco, M.H., Murray, S.C., Williams, W.P. 2013. Diallel analysis of diverse maize germplasm lines for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation. Crop Science. 53:394-402.
Foliar herbivory triggers local and long distance defense responses in maize - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ankala, A., Kelley, R.Y., Rowe, D.E., Williams, W.P., Luthe, D.S. 2013. Foliar herbivory triggers local and long distance defense responses in maize. Plant Science. 200:103-112. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168945212002257.
Characterization of Expressed Sequence Tag-Derived Simple Sequence Repeat Markers for Aspergillus flavus: Emphasis on Variability of Isolates from the Southern United States - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Wang, X., Wadl, P., Wood-Jones, A., Windham, G.L., Trigiano, R., Scruggs, M., Pilgrim, C., Baird, R. 2012. Characterization of expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeat markers for Aspergillus flavus: emphasis on variability of isolates from the southern United States. Mycopathologia. 174:371–382.
Characterization of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium of ZmLOX4 and ZmLOX5 loci in maize. - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
De La Fuente, G.N., Murray, S., Isakeit, T., Park, Y., Yan, Y., Warburton, M.L., Kolomiets, M.V. 2013. Characterization of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium of ZmLOX4 and ZmLOX5 loci in maize. PLoS One. 8(1):e53973. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053973.
Comparison of the performance of synthetic maize varieties created based on genetic distance or general combining ability of the parent - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Narro, L., Franco, J.D., George, M.L., Arcos, A.L., Osorio, K., Warburton, M.L. 2013. Comparison of the performance of synthetic maize varieties created based on genetic distance or general combining ability of the parent. Maydica. 57:83-91.
Genome-wide association study dissects the genetic architecture of oil biosynthesis and accumulation in maize kernel - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Hui, L., Yang, X., Wang, W., Peng, Z., Fu, J., Han, Y., Chai, Y., Guo, T., Yang, N., Liu, J., Warburton, M.L., Chen, Y., Hao, X., Zhang, P., Liu, Y., Li, J., Wang, G., Yan, J. 2012. Genome-wide association study dissects the genetic architecture of oil biosynthesis and accumulation in maize kernel. Nature Genetics. 45(1):43-50. doi:10.1038/ng.2484.
Tissue-specific components of resistance to Aspergillus ear rot of maize - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Mideros, S.X., Windham, G.L., Williams, W.P., Nelson, R.J. 2012. Tissue-specific components of resistance to Aspergillus ear rot of maize. Phytopathology. 102:787-793.
Identification of maize genes associated with host plant resistance and susceptibility to Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Kelley, R.Y., Williams, W.P., Mylroie, J.E., Boykin, D.L., Harper, J.W., Windham, G.L., Ankala, A., Shan, X. 2012. Identification of maize genes associated with host plant resistance and susceptibility to Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation. PLoS One. 7:1-12. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0036892
Molecular characterization of diverse CIMMYT maize inbred lines from eastern and southern Africa using single nucleotide polymorphic markers - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Semagn, K., Magorokosho, C., Vivek, B.S., Makumbi, D., Beyene, Y., Mugo, S., Prasanna, B.M., Warburton, M.L. 2012. Molecular characterization of diverse CIMMYT maize inbred lines from eastern and southern Africa using single nucleotide polymorphic markers. BioMed Central (BMC) Genetics. 13:113. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-12-113.
Evaluation of maize germplasm for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Henry, W.B., Windham, G.L., Blanco, M.H. 2012. Evaluation of maize germplasm for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation. Agronomy. 2:28-39.
Comparison of different inoculating methods to evaluate the pathogenicity and virulence of Aspergillus niger on two maize hybrids - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Windham, G.L., Williams, W.P. 2012. Comparison of different inoculating methods to evaluate the pathogenicity and virulence of Aspergillus niger on two maize hybrids. Phytoparasitica. 40(4):305-310.
Registration of Mp718 and Mp719 germplasm lines of maize     Reprint Icon - (Germplasm Registration)
Williams, W.P., Windham, G.L. 2012. Registration of Mp718 and Mp719 germplasm lines of maize. Journal of Plant Registrations. 6:200-202.
A maize (Zea mays) line resistant to herbivory constitutively releases (E)-B-caryophyllene - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Smith, W.E., Shivaji, R., Williams, W.P., Luthe, D.S., Sandoya, G.V., Smith, C.L., Sparks, D.L., Brown, A.E. 2012. A maize line resistant to herbivory constitutively releases (E)-B-caryophyllene. Journal of Economic Entomology. 105:120-128.
Effect of matrix clean-up for aflatoxin analysis in corn and dried distillers grains - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
McDaniel, A., Holmes, W.E., Williams, P., Armbrust, K.L., Brown, A.E. 2011. Effect of matrix clean-up for alfatoxin analysis in corn and dried distillers grains. Scientific Research and Essays. 2:1-8.
An 11-bp insertion in Zea mays FatB reduces the palmitate content of fatty acids in maize grain - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Li, L., Li, H., Li, Q., Yang, X., Zheng, D., Warburton, M.L., Chai, Y., Zhang, P., Guo, Y., Yan, J., Li, J. 2011. An 11-bp insertion in Zea mays fatB reduces the palmitate acid content of fatty acids in maize grain. PLoS One. 6 (e24699):1-12.
A public platform for the verification of the phenotypic effect of candidate genes for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation and Aspergillus flavus infection in maize - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Warburton, M.L., Williams, W.P., Hawkins, L., Bridges, S., Gresham, C., Harper, J., Ozkan, S., Mylroie, J.E., Shan, X. 2011. A public platform for the verification of the phenotypic effect of candidate genes for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation and Aspergillus flavus infection in maize. Toxins. 3:754-765.
Association Mapping for Enhancing Maize Genetic Improvement - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Yan, J., Warburton, M.L., Crouch, J. 2011. Association mapping for enhancing maize genetic improvement. Crop Science. 51:433-449.
Gene Flow Among Different Teosinte Taxa and Into the Domesticated Maize Gene Pool - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Warburton, M.L., Wilkes, G., Taba, S., Charcosset, A., Mir, C., Dumas, F., Madur, D., Dreisigacker, S., Bedoya, C., Prasanna, B.M., Xie, C.X., Hearne, S., Franco, J. 2011. Gene flow among different teosinte taxa and into the domesticated maize gene pool. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 58:1243-1261.
Belowground resistance to western corn rootworm in Lepidopteran-resistant maize genotypes - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Gill, T., Sandoya, G., Williams, W.P., Luthe, D.S. 2011. Belowground resistance to western corn rootworm in Lepidopteran-resistant maize genotypes. Journal of Economic Entomology. 104:299-307.
Aboveground to belowground herbivore defense signaling in maize: A two-way street? - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Luthe, D., Gill, T., Zhu, L., Lopez, L., Pechanova, O., Shivaji, R., Ankala, A., Williams, W.P. 2011. Aboveground to belowground herbivore defense signaling in maize: A two-way street?. Plant Signaling and Behavior. 6:126-129.
Proteomic analysis of the maize rachis: Potential roles of constitutive and induced proteins in resistance to Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Pechanova, O., Techan, T., Williams, W.P., Luthe, D.S. 2011. Proteomic analysis of the maize rachis: Potential roles of constitutive and induced proteins in resistance to Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin. Proteomics. 11:114-127.
Ear Rot, Aflatoxin Accumulation, and Fungal Biomass in Maize after Inoculation with Aspergillus flavus - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Williams, W.P., Ozkan, S., Ankala, A., Windham, G.L. 2011. Ear rot, aflatoxin accumulation, and fungal biomass in maize after inoculation with Aspergillus flavus. Field Crops Research. 120:196-200.
Aflatoxin Accumulation in Commercial Corn Hybrids Artificially Inoculated with Aspergillus flavus in 2008 and 2009 - (Experiment Station)
Daves, C., Windham, G.L., Williams, W.P. 2010. Aflatoxin accumulation in commercial corn hybrids artificially inoculated with Aspergillus flavus in 2008 and 2009. Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station Research Report. Vo. 24, No. 9. 6 p.
Genetic Association Mapping Identifies Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Genes that Affect Abscisic Acid Levels in Maize Floral Tissues During Drought - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Setter, T.L., Yan, J., Warburton, M.L., Ribaut, J., Xu, Y., Sawkins, M., Buckler, E.S., Zhang, Z., Gore, M.A. 2010. Genetic association mapping identifies single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes that affect abscisic acid levels in maize floral tissues during drought. Journal of Experimental Botany. 62:701-716. doi:10.1093/jxb/erq308.
Comparison of the side-needle and knife techniques for inducing Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation in corn hybrids - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Henry, W.B., Krakowsky, M.D., Windham, G.L., Williams, W.P., Scully, B.T., Rowe, D.E., Hawkins, L.K. 2010. Comparison of the side-needle and knife techniques for inducing Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation in corn hybrids. Toxin Reviews. 29:123-129.
Comparative Analysis of the Performance of Aspergillus flavus on Resistant and Susceptible Maize Genotypes during Infection - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ankala, A., Bolla, B.K., Shivaji, R., Williams, W.P., Wilkinson, J. 2011. Comparative analysis of the performance of Aspergillus flavus on resistant and susceptible maize genotypes during infection. Fungal Ecology. 4:32-41.
Integrated database for identifying candate genes for Aspergillus flavus resistance in maize - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Kelley, R.Y., Gresham, C., Harper, J., Bridges, S.M., Warburton, M.L., Hawkins, L.K., Pechanova, O., Peethambaran, B., Pechan, T., Luthe, D.S., Mylroie, J.E., Ankala, A., Ozkan, S., Henry, W.B., Williams, W.P. 2010. Integrated database for identifying candidate genes for Aspergillus flavus resistance in maize. BMC Bioinformatics. 11(6):S25.
Relationship, Evolutionary Fate and Function of Two Maize Co-orthologs of Rice GW2 Associated with Kernel Size and Weight - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Li, Q., Li, L., Yang, X., Warburton, M.L., Bai, G., Dai, J., Li, J., Yan, J. 2010. Relationship, evolutionary fate and function of two maize co-orthologs of rice GW2 associated with kernel size and weight. Biomed Central (BMC) Plant Biology. 10:143-157.
Aflatoxin Accumulation in BT and non-BT Maize Testcrosses - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Williams, W.P., Windham, G.L., Krakowsky, M.D., Scully, B.T., Ni, X. 2010. Aflatoxin accumulation in BT and non-BT maize testcrosses. Journal of Crop Improvement. 24:392-399.
Proteome Profile of the Developing Maize (Zea mays L.) Rachis - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Pechanova, O., Pechan, T., Ozkan, S., Adams, J.P., McCarthy, F.M., Williams, W.P., Luthe, D.S. 2010. Proteome Profile of the Developing Maize (Zea mays L.) Rachis. Proteomics. 10:3051-3055.
Identification of QTL contributing resistance to aflatoxin accumulation in maize - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Warburton, M.L., Brooks, T.D., Windham, G.L., Williams, W.P. 2011. Identification of novel QTL contributing resistance to aflatoxin accumulation in maize. Molecular Breeding. 27:491-499.
Genetic analysis and characterization of a new maize association mapping panel for quantitative trait loci dissesction - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Yang, X., Yan, J., Shah, T., Warburton, M.L., Li, Q., Li, L., Gao, Y., Chai, Y., Fu, Z., Zhou, Y., Xu, S., Bai, G., Yijiang, M., Zheng, Y., Li, J. 2010. Genetic Analysis and Characterization of a New Maize Association Mapping Panel for Quantitative Trait Loci Dissesction. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 121:417-431.
Rare Genetic Variation at Zea mays crtRB1 Increases B-Carotene in Maize Grain - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Yan, J., Kandianis, C.B., Haries, C.E., Bai, L., Kim, E., Yang, X., Skinner, D., Fu, Z., Mitchell, S., Li, Q., Fernandez, M., Zaharieva, M., Babu, R., Fu, Y., Palacios, N., Li, J., DellaPenna, D., Brutnell, T., Buckler, E.S., Warburton, M.L., Rocheford, T. 2010. Rare Genetic Variation at Zea mays crtRB1 Increases B-carotene in Maize Grain. Nature Genetics. 42:322-329.
Plants on constant alert: elevated levels of jasmonic acid and jasmonate-induced transcripts in caterpillar resistant maize - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shivaji, R., Camas, A., Ankala, A., Engelberth, J., Tumlinson, J.H., Williams, W.P., Wilkinson, J.R., Luthe, D.S. 2010. Plants on Constant Alert: Elevated Levels of Jasmonic Acid and Jasmonate-Induced Transcripts in Caterpillar Resistant Maize. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 36:179-191.
Molecular marker-assisted breeding for maize improvement in Asia - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Prasanna, B.M., Pixley, K., Warburton, M.L., Xie, C. 2010. Molecular marker-assisted breeding for maize improvement in Asia. Molecular Breeding. 26:339-356.
Aflatoxin accumulation and kernel infection of maize hybrids inoculated with Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Windham, G.L., Hawkins, L.K., Williams, W.P. 2010. Aflatoxin Accumulation and Kernel Infection of Maize Hybrids Inoculated with Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. World Mycotoxin Journal. 3(1):89-93.
Genetic Characterization and Linkage Disequilibrium Estimation of a Global Maize Collection Using SNP Markers - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Yan, J., Shah, T., Warburton, M.L., Buckler IV, E.S., McMullen, M.D., Crouch, J. 2009. Genetic Characterization and Linkage Disequilibrium Estimation of a Global Maize Collection Using SNP Markers. PLoS One. 4:1-14.
Cloning and Characterization of a Putative GS3 Ortholog Involved in Maize Kernel Development - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Li, Q., Yang, X., Bai, G., Warburton, M.L., Mahuku, G., Gore, M., Dai, J., Li, J., Yan, J. 2010. Cloning and Characterization of a Putative GS3 Ortholog Involved in Maize Kernel Development. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 120:753-763.
Diallel Analysis of Fumonisin Accumulation in Maize - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Williams, W.P., Windham, G.L. 2009. Diallel Analysis of Fumonisin Accumulation in Maize. Field Crops Research. 114:324-326.
High-throughput SNP genotyping with the GoldenGate assay in maize - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Yan, J., Yang, X., Shah, T., Sanchez-Viellda, H., Li, J., Warburton, M.L., Zhou, Y., Jonathan, J., Xu, Y. 2010. High-throughput SNP Genotyping with the GoldenGate Assay in Maize. Molecular Breeding. 25:441-451.
Integration of Ethylene and Jasmonic Acid Signaling Pathways in the Expression of Novel Maize Defense Protein Mir1-CP - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ankala, A., Luthe, D.S., Williams, W.P., Wilkinson, J.R. 2009. Integration of Ethylene and Jasmonic Acid Signaling Pathways in the Expression of Novel Maize Defense Protein Mir1-CP. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions. 22:1555-1564.
Toward Cost-Effective Fingerprinting Methodology to Distinguish Maize Open-Pollinated Varieties - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Warburton, M.L., Setimela, P., Franco, J., Cordova, H., Pixley, K., Banziger, M., Dreisigacker, S., Bedoya, C., Macrobert, J. 2010. Toward a Cost-Effective Fingerprinting Methodology to Distinguish Maize Open-Pollinated Varieties. Crop Science. 50:467-477.
Aspergillus flavus biomass in maize estimated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction is strongly correlated with aflatoxin concentration - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Mideros, S.X., Windham, G.L., Williams, W.P., Nelson, R.J. 2009. Aspergillus flavus Biomass in Maize Estimated by Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction is Strongly Correlated with Aflatoxin Concentration. Plant Disease. 93:1163-1170.
Nucelotide Diversity and Molecular Evolution of the PSY1 Gene in Zea mays Compared to some Other Grass Species - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Fu, Z.Y., Yan, J.B., Zheng, Y.P., Warburton, M.L., Crouch, J.H., Li, J.S. 2010. Nucelotide Diversity and Molecular Evolution of the PSY1 Gene in Zea mays Compared to some Other Grass Species. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 120:709-720.
Evaluation of maize inbred lines for resistance to Aspergillus and Fusarium ear rot and mycotoxin accumulation - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Henry, W.B., Williams, W.P., Windham, G.L., Hawkins, L.K. 2009. Evaluation of Maize Inbred Lines for Resistance to Aspergillus and Fusarium Ear Rot and Mycotoxin Accumulation. Agronomy Journal. 101:1219-1226.
Identification and mapping of new sources of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation in maize - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Warburton, M.L., Brooks, T.D., Krakowsky, M.D., Shan, X., Windham, G.L., Williams, W.P. 2009. Identification and mapping of new sources of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation in maize. Crop Science. 49:1403-1408.
Fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and southwestern corn borer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)leaf feeding damage and its effect on larval growth on diets prepared from lyophilized corn - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Williams, W.P., Buckley, P.M. 2008. Fall Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Southwestern Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)Leaf Feeding Damage and Its Effect on Larval Growth on Diets Prepared from Lyophilized Corn. Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology. 25:1-11.
Identifying maize germplasm with resistance to aflatoxin accumulation - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Williams, W.P., Krakowsky, M.D., Windham, G.L., Balint-Kurti, P.J., Hawkins, L.K., Henry, W.B. 2008. Identifying maize germplasm with resistance to aflatoxin accumulation. Toxin Reviews. 27:319-345.
A naturally occurring plant cysteine protease possesses remarkable toxicity against insect pests and synergizes Bacillus thuringiensis - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Mohan, S., Ma, P., Williams, W.P., Luthe, D.L. 2008. A naturally occurring plant cysteine protease possesses remarkable toxicity against insect pests and synergizes Bacillus thuringiensis. PLoS One. Available: http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0001786.
Last Modified: 7/25/2014
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