2008 Annual Report
In our efforts to improve disease resistance in potatoes, resistance to Columbia root-knot nematode (CRKN) was developed and a selectable marker for root resistance to CRKN identified. Tuber resistance to CRKN and other Root-knot species was identified and determined to be loosely linked to root resistance and to be controlled by a single dominant gene. Resistances to powdery scab, black dot, and corky ringspot disease were identified in breeding materials in both greenhouse and field evaluations.
We also have a CRIS component working on emerging diseases. Additional evidence was found that the zebra chip disorder is associated with the presence of potato psyllids (a small insect with piercing-sucking mouth parts). Psyllids may be transmitting a pathogen, but not all psyllid populations cause zebra chip symptoms, suggesting some insects are free of the presumed pathogen that is causing the ZC symptoms. The extensive and characteristic browning that occurs in ZC tubers greatly decreases the marketability of ZC tubers. We used LCMS to characterize changes found in ZC tubers. Major increases were found in several tuber phenolic compounds, especially tyrosine, and this provides insight into the biological mechanisms enabling symptom development. NP 301, Component 3.
Anthocyanins, carotenoids and iron have health-promoting effects and are desirable/required in the diet. Germplasm was assessed by ARS scientists in the Vegetable and Forrage Crops Production Research Unit in Prosser, WA for total carotenoid, total anthocyanin, and iron. Considerable variation in total anthocyanins was found, while total carotenoids ranged from 50 to 2600 microgram per 100 g FW with the most carotenoids found in progeny of Papa Amarilla from South America. The variation found in iron, suggests that iron content in new potato varieties could be increased by 50 percent. This information will contribute to the development of potatoes with enhanced nutritional value.
NP 301 Component 3: Genetic Improvement of Crops. 3c: Germplasm Enhancement/Release of Improved Genetic Resources
5.Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations
Development of specialty varieties with enhanced culinary traits and nutritional profiles has attracted the interest especially of small producers. The value added element allows them to consider marketing smaller quantities in markets that pay considerably more per pound than the traditional markets.
We have identified and collected potatoes that have been grown for hundreds of years by Native Americans and Native Alaskans. We have introduced these cultivars to tissue culture, eradicated viruses and re-intoduced them to the Native groups. This has helped to preserve their place in the industrial ethnobotany of the tribes and increased enthusiasm for science education of their own heritage food item. Every year we take several thousand cuttings of potato to the Makah Nation, and have a Potato Day, with talks about science, nutrition, gardening and politics of food production. In Alaska, "Maria's Potato" was re-introduced to the Tlingit village where it was originally grown years after it had disappeared.
Crosslin, J., Hamm, P.B., Pike, K.S., Mowry, T.M., Nolte, P., Mojtahedi, H. 2007. Managing diseases caused by viruses, viroids, and phytoplasmas. Book Chapter. Pages 161-169 in: Potato Health Management, 2nd ediiton. D.A. Johnson, editor. APS Press.
Munyaneza, J.E., Crosslin, J., Lee, I. 2007. Phytoplasmas Diseases and Insect Vectors in Potatoes of the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Bulletin of Insectology 60:181-182
Munyaneza, J.E., Goolsby, J., Crosslin, J., Upton, J.E. 2007. Further Evidence that Zebra Chip Potato Disease in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas is Associated with Bactericera cockerelli. Subtropical Plant Science 59:30-37.
Gieck, S.L., David, N.L., Hamm, P.B., Crosslin, J., Ingham, R.E. 2007. Delayed emergence, stem distortion, stunting, and foliar symptoms associated with Tobacco Rattle Virus and Paratrichodorus allius in potatoes grown in the Pacific Northwest. Online. Plant Health Progress doi: 10.1094/PHP-2007-0917-01-BR.
Shakya, R., Navarre, D.A. 2008. Lc-ms analysis of solanidane glycoalkaloid diversity among four wild potato species and three cultivars. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. DOI 10.1021/jf8006618. 56:6949-58.
Van Eck, J., Conlin, B., Garvin, D.F., Mason, H., Navarre, D.A., Brown, C.R. 2007. Enhancing beta-carotene content in potato by RNAi-mediated silencing of the b-carotene hydroxylase gene. American Journal of Potato Research. 84:331-342.
Brown, C.R. 2007. Breeding for Phytonutrient Enhancement of Potato. American Journal of Potato Research. 85:298-307. DOI 10.1007/s12230-008-9028-0.
Brown, C.R., Culley, D., Wrolstad, R., Durst, R. 2008. Achieving Phytonutrient Enhancement in Potato by Breeding for Increased Pigment. Color Quality of Fresh and Processed Foods. Eds. C. Culver and R. Wrolstad. Oxford University Press, 2008. 102-113.
Brown, C.R., Culley, D., Bonierbale, M., Amoros, W. 2007. Anthocyanin, carotenoid contents, and antioxidant values in native south american potato cultivars. HortScience. 42(7):1733-1736. 2007.
Novy, R.G., Whitworth, J.L., Stark, J.C., Love, S.L., Corsini, D.L., Pavek, J.J., Vales, M.I., James, S.R., Hane, D.C., Shock, C.C., Charlton, B.A., Brown, C.R., Knowles, N.R., Pavek, M.J., Brandt, T.L., Olsen, N. 2008. Premier russet: a dual-purpose, potato cultivar with significant resistance to low temperature sweetening during long-term storage. American Journal of Potato Research. 85:198-209 Mosley, A.R., Yilma, S., Hane, D.C., James, S.R., Rykbost, K.A., Shock, C.C., Love, S.L., Corsini, D.L., Pavek, J.J., Thornton, R.E., Charlton, B.A., Eldredge, E.P., Novy, R.G., Pavek, M.J., Knowles, N.R., Whitworth, J.L., Brown, C.R., Stark, J.C., Vales, M.I. 2008. Willamette: A Chipping Cultivar with High Yield and Specific Gravity, Low Incidence of Hollow Heart and Brown Center, and Suitability for Fresh-Market Usage. American Journal of Potato Research 85(1): 85-92
Kirk, W.W., S.L. Gieck, J.M. Crosslin, and P.B. Hamm. 2008. First report of corky ringspot caused by Tobacco rattle virus on potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) in Michigan. Plant Disease 92:485.
Kachroo, A., Da-Qi, F., Havens, W., Navarre, D.A., Kachroo, P., Ghabrial, S.A. 2008. An oleic acid-mediated pathway induces constitutive defense signaling and enhanced resistance to multiple pathogens in soybean. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions. 21:564-575.