2009 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
The objective of this research is to develop nutritional, thermal, and lighting strategies to improve production efficiency of broilers grown to heavy market weights. The four individual objectives are: characterize production efficiency and meat yield of heavy broiler chickens fed low energy diets; develop precision feeding strategies with an emphasis on DDG/S for heavy broiler chickens to optimize nutrient and energy utilization for production efficiency; determine the effects of apparent environmental temperature on production efficiency and physiological responses of heavy broiler chickens; and evaluate production efficiency and physiological responses of heavy broiler chickens as a function of light intensity.
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
This project utilizes a systems approach to address current knowledge gaps associated with nutritional, temperature, and lighting needs of broilers grown to heavy weights. Four research areas are planned to address these concerns. First, baseline knowledge of feeding heavy broilers low energy diets using corn soybean meal based diets will be assessed. This will be followed by evaluation of the inclusion of co products from ethanol and biofuel production in diets formulated to low energy; second, a diet formulation model will be developed to minimize poor broiler performance associated with nutrient variability when co products from ethanol production are included in the diet; third, factors influencing the thermal environment of heavy broiler chickens will be evaluated; fourth, production efficiency of broiler chickens subjected to low light intensity grown to heavy weights will be assessed. This research will provide the broiler industry with scientific information to make dietary and management decisions needed to improve production efficiency of broilers grown to heavy weights.
For sub-objective 3a, data collection is approximately 60% complete and it is anticipated that data collection will be completed during the upcoming winter. A second trial on the production and physiological responses of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights as influenced by varying light intensities (25, 10, 5, 2.5 and 0.2 lx) was conducted. A summary of the two trials indicated no eye lesions as a result of exposure of broiler chickens to differing levels of light intensity. Live and processing performance results indicated that birds under 2.5, 5, and 10 lx intensities showed greater body weight (BW), carcasses weight (CW), breast weight, and tenders compared to birds under 0.2 and 25 lx. There were effects of light-intensities on pH, partial pressure of oxygen (pO2), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), Ca2+, K+, and Cl-. However, there were no effects of light intensity on hematocrit (Hct), hemoglobin (Hb), and bicarbonate (HCO3-). Furthermore, there were no differences in plasma triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), or T3/T4 among the 5 light intensity treatments. In addition, plasma glucose and corticosterone concentrations were not altered by differing levels of light intensity, suggesting an absence of stress related to light intensity. There was an age effect on all examined physiological variables; however, three more trials are needed as stipulated in project plan before we can statistically analyze the data for precise results of this project.
Development of a Stochastic-linear Program for Feed Formulation. The traditional linear program used for feed formulation results in excess nitrogen due to use of higher levels of crude protein or specific amino acid incorporation into diets which is both costly and ultimately, can contribute to increased ammonia concentration. A stochastic-linear program Excel workbook was developed using linear and stochastic program approaches. A published linear program problem served as an example for the ingredients, nutrients and cost and as a benchmark in the development of the linear and stochastic programs. Standard deviations for metabolizable energy (ME) and nutrients were taken or calculated from coefficient of variation (CV), and from a commercial publication of sources for amino acids. Spreadsheet results illustrated the flexibility, accuracy and precision of the stochastic program over the traditional linear program in meeting the requested probability for protein. Use of the stochastic program over the linear program reduced the dietary formulation of protein input which has traditionally been used to achieve a particular margin of safety (MOS) for both crude protein and specific amino acids but which has also been responsible for both higher costs to formulate feeds and ultimately, contribute to increased ammonia concentrations.
Lammers, P.J., Kerr, B.J., Weber, T.E., Bregendahl, K., Lonergan, S.M., Prusa, K.J., Ahn, D.U., Stoffregen, W.C., Dozier III, W.A., Honeyman, M. 2008. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and tissue histology of growing pigs fed crude glycerin-supplemented diets. Journal of Animal Science. 86(11):2962-2970.
Olanrewaju, H.A., Dozier III, W.A., Purswell, J.L., Branton, S.L., Miles, D.M., Lott, B.D., Pescatore, A.J., Thaxton, J.P. 2008. Growth performance and physiological variables for broiler chickens subjected to short-term elevated carbon dioxide concentrations. International Journal of Poultry Science. 7(8):738-742.
Olanrewaju, H.A., Purswell, J.L., Collier, S.D., Branton, S.L. 2009. Effects of Broiler Rearing Environment on Transmission of F-Strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum From Commercial Layer Hens to Broiler Chickens: Role of Acid-Base Balance. Avian Diseases 8(2):145-150.
Dozier, W.A., Behnke, K., Twining, P., Branton, S.L. 2009. EFFECTS OF THE ADDITION OF ROLLER MILL GROUND CORN TO PELLETED FEED DURING A 56 DAY PRODUCTION PERIOD ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND PROCESSING YIELDS OF BROILER CHICKENS. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 18(2):310-317.
Roush, W.B., Purswell, J.L., Branton, S.L. 2009. Micosoft Excel Sensitivity Analysis for Linear and Stochastic Program Feed Formulation. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 13(1):85-89.
Dozier III, W.A., Purswell, J.L., Kidd, M.T., Corzo, A., Branton, S.L. 2007. Apparent Metabolizable Energy Needs of Broilers from 2.0 to 4.0 kg as Influenced by Ambient Temperature. Journal of Applied Poultry Research. 16:206-218.
Kidd, M.T., Corzo, A., Hill, S.M., Zumwalt, C.D., Robinson, E.H., Dozier III, W.A. 2005. Growth and meat yield responses of broilers provided feed subjected to extrusion cooking. Journal of Applied Poultry Research. 14:536-541.
Dozier III, W.A. 2005. Growth and meat yield responses of male broilers provided feeds subjected to post-grinding during a 41 day production period. Journal of Applied Poultry Research. 14:476-482.
Kidd, M.T., Barber, S.J., Zumwalt, C.D., Branton, S.L., Hoehler, D. 2003. Dietary amino acid and sodium bicarbonate responses in broilers reared in hot environmental temperatures. Journal of Applied Poultry Research. 12:145-152.
West, M.L., Corzo, A., Dozier III, W.A., Blair, M.E., Kidd, M.T. 2007. Assessment of dietary rivabio excel in practical u.s. broiler diets. Journal of Applied Poultry Research. 16:313-321.
Purswell, J.L., Thaxton, J.P., Branton, S.L. 2007. Identifying Process Variables for a Low Atmospheric Pressure Stun/Kill System. Journal of Applied Poultry Research. 16:509-513.
Roush, W.B., Purswell, J.L., Branton, S.L. 2007. An adjustable nutrient margin of safety comparison using linear and stochastic programming in an excel spreadsheet. Journal of Applied Poultry Research. 16:514-520.