2008 Annual Report
1)quantified NOW abundance in pistachios in three periods;.
2)examined phenyl propionate as an attractant for monitoring NOW; and.
3)examined the minimal configuration of timed aerosol dispensers (puffers) needed to consistently disrupt mating. For the first objective, we found abundance of NOW is lower in pistachios in early July compared to earlier or later periods (April-May and August-September, respectively). For the second objective, we found that phenyl propionate was at times as attractive as traps with unmated females as a pheromone source, but was quite variable in the number and sex ratio of moths captured. It seems likely that unknown physiological factors cause male and female response to change differently with age, and that NOW response to phenyl propionate varies with the presence or concentration of unknown plant-associated volatiles. For the third objective, we found that a group of six puffers in two columns, with 105 feet between puffers, comprises a minimum configuration for consistently high depression of males captured in traps baited with unmated females as a pheromone source. These results--characterization of the period of least NOW abundance, development of new and more affective attracts for monitoring, and identification of a minimum configuration for small-plot for testing of the ability of puffers to disrupt sexual communication--will provide more and better options for management of NOW in pistachios.
Cooperator activity is monitored through technical meetings, site visits, email, and telephone conversations.