2011 Annual Report
Objective 2: Characterize the interaction of major sugarbeet pathogens (esp. Beet necrotic yellow vein virus, Cercospora beticola, Rhizoctonia solani, and Fusarium oxysporum) with sugarbeet. Sub-Objective 2a: Apply proteomics protocols to understand Beet necrotic yellow vein virus-sugar beet interactions. Sub-Objective 2b: Using comparative proteomics, determine the degree of conservation of defense response against a variety of Fusarium spp. Sub-Objective 2c: Determine role of ubiquitination and the proteosome pathway in activation of plant defense.
Objective 3: Develop and distribute enhanced germplasm with novel stress resistance genes.
We made significant progress in ascertaining diversity in sugarbeet genetic resources through screening for rhizoctonia root rot and beet curly top virus in field nurseries (Objective 1). Also significant improvements to the rhizoctonia nursery screening methodology were made. Using these results, progress has been made in developing and distributing enhanced germplasm with novel stress resistance genes (Objective 3). Breeding populations with resistance to sugarbeet cyst nematode, cercospora leaf spot, fusarium yellows, and rhizoctonia root rot have been advanced. Four rhizomania and rhizoctonia resistant germplasms were registered in the Journal of Plant Registration. One joint release with USDA-ARS Fargo with resistance to cercospora leaf spot and sugarbeet root maggot also was registered in the Journal of Plant Registrations. Four more germplasm with resistance to rhizomania and cercospora leaf spot are being prepared for ARS release.
Progress has been made in understanding the interaction of fusarium yellows (FOB), a fungal disease, with sugar beet (Objective 2). Fusarium yellows of sugar beet can lead to significant reductions in yield. Genetic resistance and sound cultural practices (primarily water management) are the only reliable management tools. Isolates of the fungus causing FOB are categorized by their ability to cause disease on specific crop plants, vegetative compatibility grouping (VCG), and genetic relationships. Sugar beet often is grown in rotation with other crops including dry edible bean and onion, on which FOB may cause significant diseases. Modest information is available regarding how crop rotation can influence diversity of local populations of FOB in particular production regions. We have shown cross pathogenicity with some FOB isolates being able to attack both onion and sugar beet. The VCG testing indicated that the FOB population is very diverse with many origins and most likely cannot be classified into distinct races on this basis.
How FOB causes Fusarium yellow is mostly unknown. The DNA code of known compounds produced by similar fungi has been used to screen the DNA from the strains of fungus that cause Fusarium yellows. Some genes have been indentified and will be checked to see if they are active in causing disease. Additionally, the second year of a three year field study to examine the influence of air temperature, soil temperature, soil moisture, and air moisture to disease severity and onset of diseases has begun. Growth chamber experiments corresponding to the field experiments also have been initiated to more closely study how air temperature contributes to disease severity.
Panella, L.W., Strausbaugh, C.A. 2011. Beet curly top resistance of USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System plant introductions, 2010. Plant Disease Management Reports. 5:FC066. Online publication doi:10.1094/PDMR05.
Panella, L.W., Vagher, T.O., Fenwick, A.L., Webb, K.M. 2011. Rhizoctonia Crown and Root Rot Resistance of Beta Plant Introductions from the USDA, Agricultural Research Service's National Plant Germplasm System, 2010. Plant Disease Management Reports. 5:FC067. Online publication doi:10.1094/PDMR05.
Campbell, L.G., Panella, L.W., Smigocki, A.C. 2011. Registration of F1024 sugarbeet germplasm with resistance to sugarbeet root maggot. Journal of Plant Registrations. 5(2):241-247.
Eggleston, G., Tew, T., Panella, L., Klasson, T. 2010. Ethanol from Sugar Crops. In: Singh, B.P., editor. Industrial Crops and Uses. Wallingford, United Kingdom:CABI (Council of Applied Biology International). Chapter 3, p. 60-83.
Hill, A.L., Reeves, P.A., Larson, R.L., Fenwick, A.L., Hanson, L.E., Panella, L.W. 2011. Genetic Variability Among Isolates of Fusarium oxysporum from Sugar Beet. Journal of Plant Pathology. 60(3): 496-505. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2010.02394.x.
Panella, L.W. 2011. Sugar Beet as an Energy Crop. Sugar Tech. 12(3-4):288-293.
Panella, L.W., Lewellen, R.T., Webb, K.M. 2011. Registration of FC1018, FC1019, FC1020, and FC1022, Sugarbeet Multigerm Pollinator Germplasms with Disease Resistance. Journal of Plant Registrations. 5(2):233-240. doi: 10.3198/jpr2010.05.0293crg.
Strausbaugh, C.A., Eujayl, I.A., Panella, L.W., Hanson, L.E. 2011. Virulence, distribution and diversity of rhizoctonia solani from sugar beet in Idaho and Oregon. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology. 33(2): 210-226.
Webb, K.M., Hill, A.L., Laufman, J., Hanson, L.E., Panella, L.W. 2011. Long-term Preservation of a Collection of Rhizoctonia solani, using Cryogenic Storage. Annals of Applied Biology. 158(3):297-304.
Panella, L.W., Kaffka, S.R. 2010. Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L) as a Biofuel Feedstock in the United States. American Chemical Society Symposium Series. pp. 163-175 In: Eggleston, G. (ed.) Sustainability of the Sugar and Sugar-Ethanol Industries.