2010 Annual Report
Objective 2: Characterize the interaction of major sugarbeet pathogens (esp. Beet necrotic yellow vein virus, Cercospora beticola, Rhizoctonia solani, and Fusarium oxysporum) with sugarbeet. Sub-Objective 2a: Apply proteomics protocols to understand Beet necrotic yellow vein virus-sugar beet interactions. Sub-Objective 2b: Using comparative proteomics, determine the degree of conservation of defense response against a variety of Fusarium spp. Sub-Objective 2c: Determine role of ubiquitination and the proteosome pathway in activation of plant defense.
Objective 3: Develop and distribute enhanced germplasm with novel stress resistance genes.
We made significant progress in ascertaining diversity in sugarbeet genetic resources and a major plant fungal pathogen causing Fusarium yellows (Objective 1a & 1b). Beta nana is a wild relative of cultivated beet and, potentially, a genetic resource for breeding cold tolerance and other traits. Both in their habitat and in a common garden, plants of B. nana looked much the same. Single sequence repeat (microsatellite or SSR) differences were used to measure genetic diversity. Of the 12 SSRs tested thus far (on 60 individuals from 8 areas), 5 have not worked well, 3 are the same in all plants, and 4 showed differences among plants. Fusarium Yellows is caused by the fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae. It occurs throughout sugar beet production areas of the United States and can lead to significant reduction in yield. The ability of this fungus to cause disease in other crops, and its vegetative compatibility with other strains of the same fungus have been tested.
Progress also was made in characterizing the interaction of sugarbeet with major sugarbeet pathogens (Objective 2a & 2b). How F. oxysporum f. sp. betae causes Fusarium yellow is mostly unknown. The approach is to use the DNA code of known compounds produced by similar fungi to design diagnostic code to screen the DNA from the strains of fungus that cause Fusarium yellows. Some genes have been indentified and will be checked to see if they are active in causing disease. Additionally, the first year of a three year field study to examine the influence of air temperature, soil temperature, soil moisture, and air moisture to disease severity and onset of diseases has begun. Growth chamber experiments corresponding to the field experiments also have been initiated to more closely study how air temperature contributes to disease severity.
Progress has been made in developing and distributing enhanced germplasm with novel stress resistance genes (Objective 3). Breeding populations with resistance to sugarbeet cyst nematode, cercospora leaf spot, fusarium yellows, and rhizoctonia root rot have been advanced. Four rhizomania and rhizoctonia resistant germplasms were released and submitted to the Journal of Plant Registration for registration. One joint release with USDA-ARS Fargo with resistance to cercospora leaf spot and sugarbeet root maggot was submitted for registration in the Journal of Plant Registrations. Four more germplasm with resistance to rhizomania and cercospora leaf spot are being prepared for ARS release and registration.
Panella, L.W., Fenwick, A.L., Hill, A.L., Vagher, T.O., Webb, K.M. 2010. Rhizoctonia Crown and Root Rot Resistance of Beta PI's from the USDA-ARS NPGS, 2009. Plant Disease Management Reports. 4:FC004
Panella, L.W., Mcgrath, J.M. 2010. The History of Public Breeding for Resistance to Cercospora Leaf Spot in North America. Book Chapter. In R.T. Lartey, J.J. Weiland, L. Panella, P.W. Crous, and C.E. Windels (ed.) Cercospora Leaf Spot of Sugar Beet and Related Species. APS Press, St. Paul, MN, U.S.A. 141-156.
Lartey, R.T., Weiland, J.J., Panella, L.W. 2010. Chapter 1: Brief History of Cercospora Leaf Spot of Sugar Beet. In: Lartey R.T., Weiland, J.J., Panella, L., Crous, P.W., and Windels, C.E., editors. Cercospora Leaf Spot of Sugar Beet and Related Species. St. Paul, MN: American Phytopathological Society Press. p. 1-5.
Bolton, M.D., Panella, L.W., Campbell, L.G., Khan, M.F. 2010. Temperature, Moisture, and Fungicide Effects in Managing Rhizoctonia Root and Crown Rot of Sugar Beet. Phytopathology. 100(7):689-697.
Hellier, B. and Panella, L. 2009. Beta Genetic Resources: North American Activities. In: Frese L. Maggioni L, Lipman E, editors, Beta Network. Third Joint Meeting, 8-11 March 2006, Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, Spain. Bioversity International, Rome, Italy. 109-111.
Frese, L, Hannan, R, Hellier, B, Samaras, S, Panella, L. 2009. Survey of Beta nana in Greece. Pages 45-52 In: Frese L, Maggioni L, Lipman E, editors. 2009 Beta Network. Third Joint Meetings, 8-11 March 2006, Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, Spain. Bioversity International, Rome, Italy.
Webb, K.M., Ona, I., Bai, J., Garrett, K.A., Mew, T., Vera Cruz, C.M., Leach, J.E. 2010. A Benefit of High Temperature: Increased Effectiveness of a Rice Bacterial Blight Disease Resistance Gene. New Phytologist. 185: 568-576
Stevanato, P., Zavalloni, C., Marchetti, R., Bertaggia, M., Saccomani, M., Mcgrath, J.M., Panella, L.W., Biancardi, E. 2010. Relationship Between Subsoil Nitrogen Availability and Sugar Beet Processing Quality. Agronomy Journal: 102 (1)17-22.