2012 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416):
Objectives of this research are the development of potato varieties and germplasm with disease and pest resistances, reduced sugar accumulation, reduced need for production inputs, and enhanced nutritional qualities. Targets for resistance breeding are the major diseases and pests affecting potato production in the western United States. Many of these diseases and pests are nationally important, with germplasm and varieties from our program also benefitting potato producers outside the western United States as well.
Objective 1: Develop potato germplasm with beneficial traits and make available to the potato industry, breeders, and geneticists.
Objective 2: Develop enhanced potato varieties that benefit U.S. potato producers and consumers, including russets (fresh market and processing), long whites (processing), round whites (chipping), and specialty (red-skinned and yellow-fleshed), with emphasis on disease and pest resistance, reduced sugar accumulation, reduced need for production inputs, and enhanced nutritional qualities.
Objective 3: Develop marker-assisted selection (MAS) protocols for potato traits, with an emphasis on pathogen and pest resistances.
Objective 4: Characterize foliar and tuber responses of potato varieties to infection by newly identified strains of potato virus Y (PVY), and identify new sources of resistances to these PVY strains useful to potato breeders.
1b.Approach (from AD-416):
This research, performed under institutional biosafety policies, will benefit the western U.S. potato industry by developing new potato varieties that will maintain the economic viability and competitiveness of this region in an age of expanding global competition. This will be accomplished by producing new potato varieties with improved agronomic characteristics, nutritional qualities, disease/pest resistances, and a reduced need for production inputs such as water and nitrogen. Desired traits will be acquired from wild relatives of the cultivated potato and from germplasm of other potato breeding programs within and outside of the U.S. Identified parental material will be hybridized with potato breeding clones and varieties adapted to the irrigated environments of the western U.S. Progeny of hybridizations will be evaluated, performance data collected, and superior individuals selected and advanced in the program for release as potato varieties with enhanced attributes. Newer technologies, such as marker-assisted selection, will be used to facilitate the development of enhanced potato varieties.
Two new potato varieties, originating from this project, were released with collaborators contributing to project objective 2. ‘Teton Russet’ is an early maturing, variety with russet skin that is acceptable for fresh consumption and for processing. It is notable for having resistance to Fusarium dry rot and common scab diseases and has higher protein and Vitamin C content than standard varieties. Laboratory analyses also have confirmed that Teton Russet has relatively low concentrations of the amino acid asparagine, which contributes to a reduction in acrylamide following processing. The second potato variety released is 'Palisade Russet', a russet skinned variety that is notable for having resistance to late blight, a devastating disease of potato. The late blight resistance of Palisade Russet coupled with multiple resistances to other diseases of potato makes it a good candidate for improved sustainable production with fewer pesticides required for its growth. Palisade Russet also has an exceptionally low incidence of sugar ends of French fries which is a trait desired by the potato processing industry. Field evaluations of a family segregating for traits were also conducted as part of a national research effort termed “SolCAP” to link genes important in carbohydrate and vitamin biosynthesis in potato with molecular markers to aid in the incorporation of marker-assisted selection in potato breeding, thereby contributing to project objective 3. A subset of these SolCAP breeding clones are now being used to aid in identifying molecular markers important in the formation of acrylamide, with this project supplying seed and being one of two field test sites in 2012. This research is conducted as a component of a national effort to reduce acrylamide in processed potato products. This project also contributed advanced breeding clones and varieties for the National Fry Processing Trial (NFPT) which seeks to identify processing varieties having low acrylamide that could be rapidly adopted by the U.S. potato processing industry. Our project oversaw the Idaho trial site of the 2011 NFPT and again is a trial site in 2012, with 88 entries contributed by breeding programs throughout North America represented. As part of the SCRI Zebra Chip (ZC) Research initiative, potato germplasm from this project has been identified by state and ARS collaborators as having resistance to ZC disease and its insect vector (potato psyllid) based on greenhouse and field-cage evaluations. This is notable in that potato varieties currently utilized by industry have shown no or little resistance to ZC and contributes to project objective 1. Our project also is conducting multi-state trials (ID, NY, WI) for Potato virus Y (PVY) resistance. First year results show that 4 of 16 cultivars tested were resistant to three PVY strains used in the test. In addition, our work to screen for PVY resistance in intra-genetically modified lines from collaborators in MI has shown that three previously PVY susceptible varieties now exhibit resistance to three PVY strains. This PVY research contributes to project objectives 3 and 4.
Release of Potato Variety: Palisade Russet. The U.S. potato industry is seeking more sustainable production by reducing the use of pesticides, and variety resistance to disease is an important component of the effort. Palisade Russet, originating from the ARS potato breeding program at Aberdeen, Idaho, is a potato variety notable for resistance to foliar and tuber late blight disease, and Verticillium wilt, black dot, and pink rot. It also has moderate resistance to several other diseases. In addition to its disease resistance, Palisade Russet has excellent resistance to a problem of processed potatoes known as "French fry sugar ends". The disease and processing attributes of Palisade Russet contribute to industry efforts to increase the sustainability of potato production in the U.S.
Release of Potato Variety: Teton Russet. The U.S. potato industry is interested in early-maturing potato varieties that can replace acreage of Russet Norkotah, the second-most widely grown potato variety in the U.S. Teton Russet, an early maturing potato variety originated from the ARS potato breeding program at Aberdeen, Idaho, and was developed and released in collaboration with state collaborators in the Tri-State Potato Variety Development Program. Teton Russet has resistance to two important diseases common scab and dry rot and has high protein and Vitamin C content. Teton Russet also has a low concentration of the amino acid asparagine which contributes to lower acrylamide concentrations in its processed potato products. The attributes of Teton Russet make it an improved alternative to Russet Norkotah. Especially, significant is its ability to produce lower acrylamide in processed potato products since acrylamide is a major concern of the potato processing industry.
Yilma, S., Vales, M., Charton, B.A., Hane, D.C., James, S.R., Shock, C.C., Mosley, A.R., Culp, D., Feibert, E., Leroux, L., Karaagac, E., Knowles, N., Pavek, M., Stark, J.C., Novy, R.G., Whitworth, J.L., Pavek, J.J., Corsini, D.L., Brandt, T.L., Olsen, N., Brown, C.R. 2012. Owyhee Russet: A variety with high yields of U.S. no. 1 tubers, excellent processing quality, and moderate resistance to Fusarium dry rot (Fusarium solani var. coeruleum). American Journal of Potato Research. 89:175-183.
Novy, R.G., Whitworth, J.L., Stark, J.C., Charton, B.A., Yilma, S., Knowles, N.R., Pavek, M.J., Brandt, T.L., Gupta, S., Olsen, N., Thornton, M., Brown, C.R., Corsini, D.L., Pavek, J.J., James, S.R., Hane, D.C., Lozoya-Saldana, H., Vales, I. 2012. Palisade Russet: A late blight resistant potato cultivar having a low incidence of sugar ends and high specific gravity. American Journal of Potato Research. 89:89-101.
Butler, C., Gonzalez, B., Keremane, M.L., Lee, R.F., Novy, R.G., Miller, J., Trumble, J. 2011. Behavioral responses of adult potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae), to potato germplasm and transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous. Crop Protection Journal. 30(9):p1233-1238.
Srinivasan, R., Hall, D.G., Cervantes, F.A., Alvares, J.M., Whitworth, J.L. 2012. Strain specificity and simultaneous transmission of closely related strains of a Potyvirus by Myzus persicae. Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol 105:783-791.
Whitworth, J.L., Hamm, P.B., Nolte, P. 2012. Distribution of Potato virus Y strains in tubers during the post-harvest period. American Journal of Potato Research. Volume 89:2:136-141.