2009 Annual Report
Among these microfungi only very small differences in their microscopic structures indicate what they are. By analyzing small molecules called peptides it is possible to identify species using a mass spectrometer. This method allows rapid identification of species with results similar to DNA sequencing. It provides useful information for classifying Trichoderma that could be applied to other fungi. Plant pathologists will use this research to develop fungi to control plant diseases will use this research. A paper reporting this work was submitted and is being revised.
This year research on systematics of Trichoderma concentrated on the biological control fungi in the T. stromaticum and T. asperellum species complexes. The work resulted in the conclusion that T. stromaticum is not two species whereas the morphologically defined species T. asperellum represents two reproductively isolated species. The former project included analysis of multiple genes and recognizes the closest relative of T. stromaticum to be a new species newly discovered in Cameroon and Thailand. The latter project involved international collaboration using techniques of peptide analysis and recurring sequences of genetic polymorphisms (SPD).
The distribution of the insect biocontrol fungus Beauveria was investigated in an agricultural field and adjacent semi-natural hedgerow using phylogenetic and population genetic approaches. This survey found that only a single species was present in the tilled agricultural soils whereas seven species occurred throughout the hedgerow, either in soil, on insects or on leaf surfaces in the hedgerow canopy. Although genetically diverse at the site, the local population structure of all species appears to be clonal due to the lack of mating compatible genotypes.
A four-gene phylogeny was used as the basis for a taxonomic revision of the insect biocontrol Metarhizium anisopliae complex. Six previously described varieties are elevated to species, and two new species described. The molecular markers developed in this study provide objective identification tools for this difficult morphological species complex.
Hananda, R.E., De Souza, J.T., Pomella, A.V., Hebbar, K., Pereira, J.O., Ismaiel, A.A., Samuels, G.J. 2008. Trichoderma martiale sp. nov., a new endophyte from sapwood of Theobroma caco with a potential for biological control. Mycological Research. 112:1335-1343.
Samuels, G.J., Lu, B., Chaverri, P., Candoussau, F., Fournier, J., Rossman, A.Y. 2008. Cyanonectria, a new genus for “Nectria” cyanostoma and its Fusarium anamorph. Mycological Progress. 8:49-58
Rehner, S.A. 2009. Molecular Systematics of Entomopathogenic Fungi. Chapter 7. In: Stock,S.P., Vandenberg,J., Glazer,I., Boemare,N., editors. Insect pathogens: molecular approaches and techniques. Cambridge, MA: CABI. p. 145-158.
Meyling, N., Lubeck, M., Eilenberg, J., Rehner, S.A. 2009. Phylogenetic and genetic diversity of the fungal entomopathogen Beauveria in adjacent agricultural and semi-natural habitats. Molecular Ecology. 18:1282-1293.
Degenkolb, T., Dieckmann, R., Nielsen, K., Theis, C., Bruckner, H., Grafenhan, T., Zafari, D., Chaverri, P., Ismaiel, A.A., Von Dohren, H., Thrane, U., Samuels, G.J. 2008. The Trichoderma brevicompactum clade: a new lineage with new species, new peptaibiotics and mycotoxins. Mycological Progress. 7(3):177-219.
Rehner, S.A., Evans, J.D. 2009. Microsatellite loci for the fungus, Ascosphaera apis, cause of honey bee chalkbrood disease. Molecular Ecology Resources. 9(3)855-858. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.111/j.1755-0998.2008.02455.x.
Bishoff, J.F., Rehner, S.A., Humber, R.A. 2009. A multilocus phylogeny of the Metarhizium anisopliae lineage. Mycologia. 101(4):512-530.
Degenkolb, T., Von Dohren, H., Nielsen, K., Samuels, G.J., Bruckner, H. 2008. Recent advances and future prospects in peptaibiotics, hydrophobin and mycotoxin research and their importance for chemotaxonomy of Trichoderma and Hypocrea. Chemistry and Biodiversity. 5:671-680.
Samuels, G.J., Ismaiel, A.A. 2009. Trichoderma evansii and T. lieckfeldtiae: two new T. hamatum-like species. Mycologia. 101:142-156.
Jaklitsch, W.M., Poldmaa, K., Samuels, G.J. 2008. Reconsideration of Protocrea (Hypocreales, Hypocreaceae). Mycologia. 100:962-984.