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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

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Research Project: DEVELOPING BIOCONVERSION PROCESSES FOR HIGH-VALUE CARBOHYDRATE PRODUCTS

Location: Renewable Product Technology Research Unit

2010 Annual Report


4.Accomplishments
1. MODIFIED MICROBIAL GUM. New and improved methods are needed to produce value-added bioproducts from agricultural commodities. Renewable Product Technology Research Unit (RPT) scientists at the National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research (NCAUR), Peoria, Illinois, optimized process conditions for the enzymatic modification of a microbial gum such that it more closely resembles gum arabic. This work has potential impact for research to develop new uses and value-added bioproducts from agricultural commodities.

2. ANTICORROSIVE POLYSACCHARIDES. Renewable and ecologically friendly agents are highly sought-after for the protection of metals from corrosion. In a collaboration between Plant Polymer Research Unit (PPL) scientists and the Renewable Product Technology Research Unit (RPT) scientists at the National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research (NCAUR), in Peoria, Illinois, microbial gums were developed which can prevent corrosion on steel. These gums are produced from sugar, and are biodegradable. This work represents a significant step toward replacing petrochemicals with bio-based materials.

3. PREBIOTIC GALACTOGLUCOMANNAN OLIGOSACCHARIDES (GGMOs). In previous years, Renewable Product Technology Research Unit (RPT) scientists at the National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research (NCAUR) in Peoria, Illinois reported the large-scale production and purification of galactoglucomannan oligosaccharides (GGMOs) from a molasses by-product of fiber board manufacture. Various lengths of GGMOs (dp 4 – 13) were produced and have been tested for prebiotic activity by our collaborators at the University of Illinois. The GGMOs selectively support bifidobacterium growth, acidify mixed cultures, and also have prebiotic activity in vitro in two animal models. This provides a new source of beneficial dietary ingredients for livestock and poultry producers, and for the pet food market.

4. NOVEL MICROBIAL GERMPLASM. Novel microbial germplasm is needed to enhance bioconversions of agricultural materials to high-value bioproducts. In collaboration with a visiting scientist from Thailand, under TFCA 58-3620-0-082F, Renewable Product Technology Research Unit (RPT) scientists at the National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research (NCAUR), Peoria, Illinois, surveyed microbial germplasm from unique environments in Thailand and used molecular tools to identify classes of organisms producing valuable biopolymers. This work has potential impact for research to develop new uses and value-added bioproducts from agricultural commodities.

5. PREBIOTIC OLIGOSACCHARIDES FROM RAFFINOSE. Raffinose is a carbohydrate that can be extracted from cottonseed meal or soy whey, both low-value agricultural coproducts. Anything that can enhance the value of these coproducts will enhance the value of soybeans or cotton. Raffinose can be used in food and feed to increase the growth of beneficial bacteria in the lower GI tract, but has the undesirable traits of low solubility and it can cause unwanted gas and bloating. Renewable Product Technology Research Unit (RPT) scientists at the National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research (NCAUR) in Peoria, Illinois, developed a way to use food-grade bacteria and enzymes to increase the solubility and potentially decrease gas production from raffinose. These new products are currently being evaluated by our collaborators in the UK and Spain. If successful, they represent a potential new market for cottonseed meal or soy whey, and a new prebiotic for animal feed and human food.

6. NEW METHODS FOR CHEMICAL SUGAR ANALYSIS. Sugars are an important component of our diet. To understand carbohydrate structure and metabolism, requires new sugar chemistry methods. New carbohydrate methods have been developed by the Renewable Product Technology Research Unit (RPT) scientists at the National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research (NCAUR), in Peoria, Illinois based on ARS patented "locked-ring sugar" technology. These methods are used to label carbohydrates with colored or fluorescent tags. Also new ways of immobilizing sugars hydrogels and onto inert beads have been developed. This technology has potential for the detection of carbohydrate-degrading microorganisms, pathogens, or enzymes. This work has impact for U.S. researchers and companies developing new uses and value-added sugars from agricultural commodities and byproducts.


Review Publications
Manitchotpisit, P., Leathers, T.D., Peterson, S.W., Kurtzman, C.P., Li, X., Eveleigh, D.E., Lotrakul, P., Prasongsuk, S., Dunlap, C.A., Vermillion, K., Punnapayak, H. 2009. Multilocus Phylogenetic Analyses, Pullulan Production and Xylanase Activity of Tropical Isolates of Aureobasidium pullulans. Mycological Research. 113:1107-1120.

Cote, G.L., Dunlap, C.A., Vermillion, K. 2009. Glucosylation of raffinose via alternansucrase acceptor reactions. Carbohydrate Research. 344:1951-1959.

Striegel, A.M., Isenberg, S.L., Cote, G.L. 2009. An SEC/MALS study of alternan degradation during size-exclusion chromatographic analysis. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 394:1887-1893.

Leathers, T.D., Nunnally, M.S., Cote, G.L. 2010. Optimization of process conditions for enzymatic modification of alternan using dextranase from Chaetomium erraticum. Carbohydrate Polymers. 81(3):732-736.

Liu, S., Bischoff, K.M., Hughes, S.R., Leathers, T.D., Price, N.P., Qureshi, N., Rich, J.O. 2009. Conversion of biomass hydrolysates and other substrates to ethanol and other chemicals by Lactobacillus buchneri. Letters of Applied Microbiology. 48(3):337-342.

Rooney, A.P., Price, N.P., Erhardt, C., Swezey, J.L., Bannan, J.D. 2009. Phylogeny and Molecular Taxonomy of the Bacillus subtilis species Complex and the Description of Bacillus subtilis subsp. inaquosorum subsp. nov. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 59(Pt 10):2429-2436.

Rooney, A.P., Price, N.P., Ray, K.J., Kuo, T. 2009. Isolation and Characterization of Rhamnolipid-Producing Bacterial Strains from a Biodiesel Facility. FEMS Microbiological Letters. 295(1):82-87.

Kitova, A.E., Leathers, T.D., Reshetilov, A.N. 2009. Screening Substrate Properties of Microorganisms for Biosensor Detection of Oligosaccharides. Water:Chemistry and Ecology. 5:24-31 (In Russian).

Kitova, A., Reshetilov, A., Ponamoreva, O., Leathers, T.D. 2010. Microbial biosensors for selective detection of disaccharides. The Internet Journal of Microbiology. 8(2).

Labeda, D.P., Price, N.P., Tan, G.A., Goodfellow, M., Klenk, H. 2010. Emendation of the Genus Actinokineospora Hasegawa 1988 and Transfer of Amycolatopsis fastidiosa Henssen et al. 1987 as Actinokineospora fastidiosa comb. nov. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 60(6):1444-1449.

Labeda, D.P., Price, N.P., Donahue, J.M., Williams, N.M., Sells, S.F. 2009. Streptomyces atriruber sp. nov. and Streptomyces silaceus sp. nov.: New Species of Equine Origin. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 59(11):2899-2903.

Price, N.P., Bowman, M.J., Legall, S., Berhow, M.A., Kendra, D.F., Lerouge, P. 2010. Functionalized C-glycoside ketohydrazones: Carbohydrate derivatization that retains the ring integrity of the terminal reducing sugar. Analytical Chemistry. 82(7):2893-2899.

Last Modified: 4/23/2014
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