2007 Annual Report
Develop more effective means for decontaminating fresh and minimally processed fruits and vegetables containing human pathogens to ensure food safety and security by assessing the efficacy of new and/or improved intervention technologies. This maintains the flexibility to expand research efforts on produced when and where necessary.
1935-42000-059-02N (Evaluation of Virus Inactivation by Hydrostatic Pressure) with the University of Delaware (see separate annual report for further details). Recent work with HAV-contaminated shellfish has shown that this phenomenon does not appear to hold up for the virus within shellfish tissues, suggesting a specific media-dependent effect of pressure on HAV. Current experiments are seeking to ferret out this issue. For a complete report on the progress of this agreement, see the report for 1935-42000-059-02N. Progress is monitored through work visits and conference calls.
1935-42000-059-03N (Norwalk Virus Inactivation by High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing: A comprehensive and Integrated Program for Research and Outreach.) with Virginia Polytechnical Institute and State University. (see separate annual report for further details). Initial evaluation of human norovirus’ capacity to be inactivated in water samples is planned this summer as well as verification that freezing after high pressure does not negatively effect remaining virus counts in pressure-treated oysters (accomplished using MNV). Once this has been completed, pressure inactivation studies on human norovirus-contaminated oysters will begin. For a complete report on the progress of this agreement, see the report for 1935-42000-059-02N. Progress is monitored thorugh work visits and conference calls.
1935-42000-059-6N (Development of Methids and Strategies to Improve the Microbiological Safety of Aquaculture Products.) with Rutgers Agricultural Research and Extension Center. (see separate annual report for further details). Work has been initiated to evaluate the potential of inactivation of murine norovirus (MNV) within clams as part of a larger USDA National Research Initiative Grant with Rutgers University Department of Food Sciences to evaluate the application of high pressure processing for the New Jersey clam industry. For a complete report on the progress of this agreement, see the report for 1935-42000-059-02N. Progress is monitored through work visits and conference calls.
Developed and applied real-time molecular techniques to quantify noroviruses in oysters. Noroviruses are the primary cause of food-related illness in the United States with an estimated 23 million cases occurring annually. Real-time molecular methods were developed and evaluated to quantify noroviruses in oysters. The methods involved development of oyster processing strategies to extract the viruses from shellfish tissues and to analyze the extracts by real-time testing method. In addition, several methods containing internal controls were developed to quantify the levels of norovirus in the shellfish. Benefits of this research include the development of improved methods to monitor virus levels in naturally-contaminated oysters and to determine the effectiveness of processing interventions on the elimination of viruses in shellfish. 2006-2010 Action Plan National Program Component 108, Problem Statement: 1.2.1, Detection [of pathogens].
Richards, G.P. 2006. Shellfish-associated viral disease outbreaks. Book Chapter. In Viruses in Foods, (S.M. Goyal, Editor), Springer, New York. pp. 223-238.
Kingsley, D.H., Guan, D., Hoover, D.G., Chen, H. 2006. Inactivation of hepatitis a virus by high pressure processing: the role of temperature and pressure oscillation. Journal of Food Protection. 69:2454-2459
Kingsley, D.H., Holliman, D., Calci, K., Chen, H., Flich, G. 2007. Inactivation of a Norovirus by High Pressure Processing. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 73:581-585.
Kingsley, D.H. 2007. An rna extraction protocol for shellfish-borne viruses. Journal of Virological Methods. Vol.141:58-62.