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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: EMISSION AND DISPERSION OF AIR QUALITY CONSTITUENTS FROM AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS
2006 Annual Report


1.What major problem or issue is being resolved and how are you resolving it (summarize project aims and objectives)? How serious is the problem? Why does it matter?
This research contributes to National Program 206 - Manure & Byproduct Utilization and National Program 203 - Air Quality. There is a need to accurately predict the impact to air quality from agricultural/animal production systems. Adding urgency to this need is a lack of understanding of the coupling between emission and dispersion of air quality constituents into the boundary layer of the atmosphere above agricultural/animal production systems. Production systems, landscapes, structural configurations and climate can vary enormously adding complexity and difficulty to the task of understanding emission and transport processes across locations, production systems and climate regimes. An approach is needed to simulate wind flow over model scale terrain and structures that allows for iterative runs of variable wind flow/turbulence regimes and different landscape and building configurations. Innovative agricultural management practices that reduce the mass of ammonia and nitrous oxide transport to the atmosphere are needed as part of the trend toward better stewardship of the land to offset deleterious effects to air quality as a result of modern agricultural and animal production systems. Logically, techniques to quantify the effectiveness of new practices need to be developed. Additionally, field measurement protocols to identify and quantify the emission of organic compounds as a function of particulate transport from animal and agricultural production systems need to be developed. Improved transport models for gases, particulates, and pathogens emitted from livestock facilities to receptor sites are needed to assess the impact of livestock operations on the environment. Current atmospheric transport models are limited by a lack of understanding of the turbulent regime in the near field of structural facilities or manure storage sites and the movement of air across complex terrain present in agricultural areas. Accurate emission factors are needed and will require surveys and synthesis of current knowledge and information regarding emission factors; evaluation of measurement tools, technologies and sampling methods used to quantify concentrations and emissions; and evaluation of field-based, scale-appropriate measurement of concentrations and estimation of fluxes across animal species, geographic regions, seasons, climates, and management practices. Due to the large number of potential building arrangements and varying land cover and topography, studies on emissions from buildings of various types have often been conducted in wind tunnels. Wind tunnels offer the advantage of being able to make detailed measurements with scale models of actual buildings under controlled environmental conditions.


2.List by year the currently approved milestones (indicators of research progress)
1. Complete wind tunnel construction. Conduct test flow characteristics with and without structures in the control section. 2. Identify three candidate CAFO/agricultural production facilities and obtain permission to monitor on site. Deploy particulate LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) to visualize plume dispersion of gases and particulates. 3. Identify three candidate CAFO/agricultural production facilities and obtain permission to monitor on site in the Fall of 2006. Complete second year of turbulence data acquisition around a CAFO site. Quantify wind flow around structural obstructions by turbulence statistics. 4. Construct and evaluate NH3 flux chambers. Identify field site and install flux anchors. 5. Develop extraction and analysis protocols.


4a.List the single most significant research accomplishment during FY 2006.
A comprehensive field study was conducted in the late summer of 2005 for three weeks at a CAFO facility in central Iowa) to measure particulate and gas emissions and dispersion. Two particulate LiDAR's were deployed (University of Iowa and Space Dynamics Laboratory, SDL, Utah State University. This study incorporated new technology (LiDAR and sonic anemometry) not previously applied to CAFO's. Additionally a new particulate LiDAR has been developed by the Space Dynamic Laboratory (SDL, Logan, UT). This study is the first of its kind to combine advanced LiDAR technology, sonic anemometry (turbulence measurements) as well as new techniques for measuring trace gases of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane in a whole facility monitoring effort. An archive of field measurements for nitrous oxide and methane has been extended to three consecutive years. An open-path Fast Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) unit for gas concentration measurement was deployed and evaluated for sensitivity of ammonia and other gases. This unit will be deployed in the fall of 2006 around a swine facility. An evaluation of hydrogen sulfide sensors for their accuracy and reliability was evaluated as part of the ongoing cooperative effort between USDA-ARS and Battelle Laboratories as part of the Environmental Testing and Evaluation (ETV) program. Particulate samplers were put into place around a swine confinement operation. Samples were collected and endotoxin analysis completed. The data indicated that the sampling protocols met the needs of the study. The open-path FTIR was modified since FY2005 to function properly when exposed to the extreme temperatures, wind, and humidity that occur in the summer around swine confinement facilities. The unit was used to collect data over a 3 week period. Models of swine housing units and manure storage facilities (approximately 1/300th scale) were placed in the control section of the wind tunnel to simulate a wide array of possible arrangements. A trip fence, spire vortex generators, and vinyl mat covering on the floor of the control section were used to create a representative surface boundary layer. A 3D hot film anemometer system was used to measured airflow characteristics at 3 distances downstream of the model buildings. Smaller and less persistent turbulent wake zones were observed downstream from swine housing unit models oriented parallel to the airflow. By contrast, models oriented perpendicular to air flow created a wake zone 5 times the building height that persisted beyond 10 times the building height downstream.

This research contributes to NP206 Manure and Byproduct Utilization, Atmospheric Emissions component, Problem Area 1, Understanding the biological, chemical, and physical mechanisms affecting emissions.


4c.List significant activities that support special target populations.
Significant activities that support special target populations: Continued efforts have been directed toward explaining the air quality variations around CAFO's to producer audiences in the Midwest.


4d.Progress report.
The development of a particulate LiDAR by the Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL) was completed and field tested at swine production facility in the late summer of 2005. This was done as part of a comprehensive Air Quality field campaign near Ames, IA that combined high resolution measurements of particulates and ammonia with turbulence measurements of water vapor, carbon dioxide and wind velocities and particulate measurements from two LiDAR systems (SDL and University of Iowa). High resolution 2-D images of plume dispersion and transport across the landscape were accomplished while simultaneously recording the turbulence characteristics that promote the transport of these particulate plumes.Models of swine housing units and manure storage facilities (approximately 1/300th scale) were placed in the control section of the wind tunnel to simulate a wide array of possible arrangements. A trip fence, spire vortex generators, and vinyl mat covering on the floor of the control section were used to create a representative surface boundary layer. A 3D hot film anemometer system was used to measured airflow characteristics at 3 distances downstream of the model buildings. Smaller and less persistent turbulent wake zones were observed downstream from swine housing unit models oriented parallel to the airflow. By contrast, models oriented perpendicular to air flow created a wake zone 5 times the building height that persisted beyond 10 times the building height downstream. Evaporation of water from scale models of aboveground (circular tank) manure storage facilities generally increased with increasing air velocity and was greatest at a separation distance of 5 times the building height. Building orientation did not have a significant effect on evaporation rate. Further tests with belowground (lagoon) manure storage facilities, changing upstream vegetation (forest), and topography (hill) have yet to be completed.


5.Describe the major accomplishments to date and their predicted or actual impact.
A 2-D particulate LiDAR was developed by SDL and field tested in the late summer of 2005 at CAFO facility in central IA. Particulate plume emission and dispersion were measured, LiDAR sensitivity and calibrations were conducted, and 2-D image of plume dispersion were measured and evaluated. High frequency turbulence was measured in the approach, within building complex and recovery space surrounding the CAFO. A first year data set has been acquired where LiDAR measurements of particulate dispersion can be correlated with high frequency turbulence data that will enable the possibility to evaluate particulate and gas dispersion with local meteorological conditions. Particulate characterizations are critical to understanding the movement of odoriferous compounds from animal confinement operations. The determination and quantification of these compounds will aid in developing technologies to reduce the emissions. The FTIR will provide data and the vapor phase concentrations of these compounds.


6.What science and/or technologies have been transferred and to whom? When is the science and/or technology likely to become available to the end-user (industry, farmer, other scientists)? What are the constraints, if known, to the adoption and durability of the technology products?
Sumner, A., Cowen, K., Dindal, A., Riggs, A., Hatfield, J., Pfeiffer, R., and Scoggin, K. "Verification of Ambient Monitoring Technologies for Ammonia and Hydrogen Sulfide at Animal Feeding Operations". A&WMA Symposium on air Quality Measurement Methods and Technology: Technology Evaluation. Durham, NC. May 10, 2006.


7.List your most important publications in the popular press and presentations to organizations and articles written about your work. (NOTE: List your peer reviewed publications below).
Odor Tracking Goes Hi-Tech, Joe van Sickle (senior editor) National Hog Farmer, page 24. March 15, 2006


Review Publications
Sumner, A., Dindal, A., Willenberg, Z., Riggs, K., Pfeiffer, R.L., Hatfield, J.L., Winnegar, E. 2005. Environmental technology verification report: Horiba Instruments,Inc., APSA-360 Ambient Hydrogen Sulfide Analyzer. Laboratory Publication. Available: http://www.epa.gov/etv/centers/center/.html

Hatfield, J.L. 2005. Book review of C.W. Rose, An introduction to environmental physics of soil, water, and watersheds. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 135:352-353.

Sumner, A., Dindal, A., Willenberg, Z., Riggs, K., Pfeiffer, R.L., Hatfield, J.L., Winnegar, E. 2005. Environmental technology verification report: Teledyne-API Model 101E Ambient Hydrogen Sulfide Analyzer. Laboratory Publication. Available: http://www.epa.gov/etv/centers/center/.html

Last Modified: 4/18/2014
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