2011 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
The objectives include:.
1)To develop laboratory-based multiclass, multiresidue analytical methods for veterinary drugs in animal-derived foods, feeds, and marker matrices (e.g., tissues, blood, urine);.
2)to develop field-based instruments and methods for analytical screening of chemicals of food safety/security concern (or nutritional interest) in foods;.
3)to develop field-portable and laboratory-based analytical methods for the screening and reliable identification of biotoxins and phytochemicals in foods;.
4)devise a scientifically defensible and practical system to evaluate qualitative identification of chemical residues in complex matrices; and.
5)employ and adapt progressive analytical concepts previously developed for pesticides (QuEChERS and related approaches) to meet other food safety and security applications (e.g. dioxins).
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
The project involves the application and evaluation of rapid and sensitive lab-based approaches to dependably detect mutliple veterinary drug classes in animal-derived foods predominantly using atmospheric pressure ionization/tandem mass spectrometry. Similarly, for multiple chemical residues and toxins in meats, poultry, eggs, fruits, vegetables, and grains, the approach involves the development and evaluation of rapid lab-based quantitative and confirmatory analytical approaches predominatly using as chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Furthermore, field-based screening techniques for chemical contaminants in foods at tolerance levels will be developed. The results obtained by these novel methods will be compared to those obtained by traditional techniques currently in use.
This project is related to 2006-2010 NP 108 Action Plan and has evolved into the next phases of research as proposed in FY-2010 leading to new approved 5-year project plan 1935-42000-056 which describes our research to continue to addresses the problems related to the lack of rapid, automated, cost-effective, waste-minimizing, safe, and high-quality analytical methods to detect multiple chemical residues and other toxic compounds in foods. The project is devised to meet the needs of the USDA Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS), Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and other organizations that monitor chemical residues in food, which also includes industry, consumer groups, and academic scientists.
We completed the Milestones of this project plan in FY-2010 and describe the additional work in the report for our new project 1935-42000-056.
Rapid and easy detection of phenolic antioxidants. The current method for measuring “total phenolics” (compounds which have anti-oxidant properties) is archaic and poorly selective. A novel method was developed by ARS researchers at Wyndmoor, PA, to measure phenolic and polyphenolic anti-oxidant compounds in foods and beverages through a chemical coupling of the Fast Blue BB diazonium salt with the phenolic carbon opposite the active phenolic hydroxyl (OH) in an alkali medium. The novel method shows higher values than the “total phenolics” method. Use of the novel method can be beneficial to regulatory agencies, fruit breeders, producers and consumers to measure the true phenolic anti-oxidants in food and beverages. FSIS may adopt this approach in the near future.
Rapid tests for identification of top-six non-O157 E. coli. Current testing methods only look for E. coli O157:H7 bacterial, but other shiga-like toxin producing E. coli can occur to cause major human illness and food safety problems. Simple and rapid testing methods are needed for other non-O157:H7 shiga-like toxins. ARS researchers at Wyndmoor, PA, and Fargo, ND, developed agglutination assays for the "top six" E. coli 026, 045, 0103, 0111, 0121 and O145 with results observed in a 5-10 seconds. These assays are being utilized by FSIS for monitoring and identification of the top six non-O157:H7 pathogens.
Chen, G., Liu Guyu 2011. Use of a portable time-resolved fluorometer to determine oxytetracycline residue in four fruit crops. Food Chemistry. 127:264-269.
Medina, M.B. 2011. A simple and rapid method for the analysis of phenolic compounds in beverages and grains. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 59:1565-1571.
Kmellar, B., Abranko, L., Fodor, P., Lehotay, S.J. 2010. Routine approach to qualitatively screen for 300 pesticides and quantify those frequently detected in fruits and vegetables using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A. 27(10):1415-1430.
Koesukwiwat, U., Lehotay, S.J., Miao, S., Leepipatpiboon, N. 2010. High throughput analysis of 150 pesticides in fruits and vegetables using QuEChERS and low-pressure gas chromatography – time-of-flight. Journal of Chromatography A. 1217:6692-6703.
Reyes-Herrera, I., Schneider, M.J., Blore, P., Donoghue, D. 2011. The relationship between blood and muscle samples to monitor for residues of the antibiotic enrofloxacin in chickens. Poultry Science. 90:481-485.
Chen, G., Du, Y. 2011. Screening of Danofloxacin residue in bovine tissue by terbium-sensitized luminescence on C18 sorbent strips. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 59:1058-1062.
Kinsella, B., Whelan, M., Cantwell, H., Mccormack, M., Furey, A., Lehotay, S.J., Danaher, M. 2010. A dual validation approach to detect anthelmintic residues in bovine liver over an extended concentration range. Talanta. 83:14-24.
Heller, D.N., Lehotay, S.J., Matos, P.A., Hammack, W., Fernandez-Alba, A.R. 2010. Issues in mass spectrometry between bench chemists and regulatory laboratory managers. Journal of Association of Official Analytical Chemists International. 93(5):1625-1632.
Medina, M.B., Uknalis, J., Tu, S. 2011. Effects of sugar addition in luria bertania (LB) media on Escherichia coli 0157:H7. Journal of Food Safety. 31(3):386-394.
Lehotay, S.J. 2011. QuEChERS sample preparation approach for mass spectrometric analysis of pesticide residues in foods. In: Zweigenbaum, J., editor. Mass Spectronmetry in Food Safety: Methods and Protocols. Methods in Molecular Biology. Springer Science+Business Media. Humana Press. 747. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-61779-136-9_4.