2008 Annual Report
Bacteriocin isolation and production. Additional Campylobacter antagonistic bacteria have been identified and their corresponding bacteriocins isolated and characterized. Control of both Campylobacter and Salmonella has been demonstrated using the newly isolated bacteriocins in live poultry. We have reduced the level of Campylobacter in the ceca of chickens by at least one-million fold via oral treatment of broilers with specific bacteriocins. By reducing the levels of pathogens in the broiler intestinal tract, corresponding cross contamination of poultry meat will be proportionately diminished and consumer exposure to these pathogens will be decreased. Two manuscripts and a patent have been published this year.
Antagonists against Clostridium perfringens. We continued carrying out the research, despite losing a key Senior Scientist position this year. Screening for bacteriophages lytic for Clostridium perfringens was completed utilizing filtered samples obtained from poultry (intestinal material), soil, sewage and poultry processing drainage water. From the collection a highly lytic virus was isolated. The double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) genome of the virus was sequenced to completion and several bacteriophage genes were identified. DNA sequencing of a bacteriophage genome completed in collaboration with Russian investigators resulted in identification of a unique amidase as well as a phage encoded protein that potentially contains lysozyme and endopeptidase activities.
Assessment of the chemical and microbial impact of poultry litter. A manuscript was published describing the effect of rainfall and tillage on transport of fecal bacteria from broiler litter applications.
Improved cultural methods for Campylobacter recovery. A manuscript was published describing the addition of sulfamethoxazole to selective media to aid in the recovery of Campylobacter bacteria from broiler carcases.
Phenotype microarray methodology has been optimized and experiments have been conducted this year with different species of Campylobacter to help determine unique cultural requirements necessary for detection, growth and recovery of the pathogens.
Two Campylobacter enrichment broths and twelve different enrichment procedures (using the two broths) were evaluated for their sensitivity to recover Campylobacter from rehang and post-chill commercial carcass rinses. Results demonstrated the lack of cultural sensitivity by certain methods for recovery of injured, stressed, or low numbers of Campylobacter cells. Increased sensitivity for recovery of these types of cells was observed when using a combination of enrichment broth methods.
5.Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations
Svetoch, E.A., Eruslanov, B.V., Perelygin, V.V., Vitsevich, E.V., Mitsevich, I.P., Borzenkov, V.N., Levchuk, V.P., Svetoch, O.E., Kovalev, Y.N., Stephanshin, Y.G., Siragusa, G.R., Seal, B.S., Stern, N.J. 2008. Diverse antimicrobial activity from Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-30746 bacteriocin. Journal of Agric Food Chem. 56(6), 1942-1948. Jenkins, M., Truman, C.C., Siragusa, G.R., Line, J.E., Bailey, J.S., Frye, J.G., Endale, D.M., Franklin, D.H., Schomberg, H.H., Fisher, D.S., Sharpe, R.R. 2008. Rainfall and tillage effects on transport of fecal bacteria and sex hormones 17ß-estradiol and testosterone from broiler litter applications to a Georgia Piedmont Ultisol. Science of the Total Environment. 403(1-3):154-163. Cox Jr, N.A., Richardson, L.J., Buhr, R.J., Musgrove, M.T., Berrang, M.E., Bright, W. 2007. Bactericidal effect of several chemicals on hatching eggs inoculated with Salmonella serovar Typhimurium. Journal of Applied Poultry Research. 16:(4)623-627. Hannah, J.F., Fletcher, D.L., Cox Jr, N.A., Smith, D.P., Cason Jr, J.A., Northcutt, J.K., Buhr, R.J., Richardson, L.J. 2008. Effect of sand and shaking duration on the recovery of aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and Escherichia coli from prechill broiler whole carcass rinsates. Applied Poultry Research. 17:(2)272-277. Bailey, J.S., Rolon, A., Hofacre, C.L., Holt, P.S., Wilson, J.L., Cosby, D.E., Richardson, L.J., Cox Jr, N.A. 2007. Humoral and mucosal-humoral immune response to a salmonella vaccination program in broiler breeders. International Journal of Poultry Science. 6(3):172-181. Rolon, A., Bailey, J.S., Hofacre, C.L., Holt, P.S., Wilson, J.L. 2007. Intestinal humoral immune response and resistance to salmonella challenge of progeny from breeders vaccinated with killed antigen. International Journal of Poultry Science. 6(6):417-423. Bailey, J.S., Rolon, A., Hofacre, C.L., Holt, P.S., Wilson, J.L., Cosby, D.E., Richardson, L.J., Cox Jr, N.A. 2007. Resistance to Challenge of Breeders and Their Progeny with and without Competitive Exclusion Treatment to Salmonella Vaccination Programs in Broiler Breeders. International Journal of Poultry Science. 6(6):386-392. Northcutt, J.K., Cason Jr, J.A., Ingram, K.D., Smith, D.P., Buhr, R.J., Fletcher, D.L. 2008. Recovery of Bacteria from Broiler Carcasses after Immersion Chilling in Different Volumes of Water, Part2. Poultry Science. 87:573-576. Cox Jr, N.A., Richardson, L.J., Buhr, R.J., Northcutt, J.K., Bailey, J.S., Cray, P.J., Hiett, K.L. 2007. Recovery of Campylobacter and Salmonella serovars from the spleen, liver and gallbladder, and ceca of six and eight week old commercial broilers. Journal of Applied Poultry Research. 16(4):477-480. Cason Jr, J.A., Hinton Jr, A., Northcutt, J.K., Buhr, R.J., Ingram, K.D., Smith, D.P., Cox Jr, N.A. 2007. Partioning of external and internal bacteria carried by broiler chickens before processing. Journal of Food Protection. 70:2056-2062. Cason Jr, J.A., Buhr, R.J., Richardson, L.J., Cox Jr, N.A. 2007. Internal and external carriage of inoculated salmonella in broiler chickens. International Journal of Poultry Science. 6:952-954. Line, J.E., Bailey, J.S., Berrang, M.E. 2008. Addition of sulfamethoxazole to selective media aids in the recovery of campylobacter spp. from broiler rinses. Journal of Rapid Methods and Automation in Microbiology. 16(1):2-12. Line, J.E., Svetoch, E.A., Eruslanov, B.V., Perelygin, V.V., Mitsevich, E.V., Mitsevich, I.P., Pokhilenko, V.D., Levchuk, V.P., Svetoch, O.E., Seal, B.S., Siragusa, G.R., Stern, N.J. 2008. Isolation and Purification of Enteroicin E-760 with a Broad Antimicrobial Activity Against Gram-positive and Gram-negative Bacteria (AAC01569-06 Version 3). Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 52:1094-1100. Siragusa, G.R., Haas, G.J., Matthews, P., Smith, R., Buhr, R.J., Macdougald, L., Dale, N. 2008. Humulus lupus Beta-acids Administered Through Water Reduce Clostridium perfringens Challenge Strains in the Chicken Intestinal Tract Midgut and Ceca.. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 61:853-8.