2008 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
Objective 1: Compare the impact of multiple irrigation methods at varying application amounts on profitability, yield, and quality of peanuts and selected crops grown in rotation with peanut.
Objective 2: Compare conservation tillage systems and conventional tillage systems with respect to different irrigation requirements to maximize profitability in a typical Southeastern crop rotation. Cover crop selection and management with regard to irrigation efficiency and pest populations will be an integral component, especially in the conservation tillage systems.
Objective 3: Develop and improve decision support systems to expedite technology transfer and adoption of emerging technologies related to peanut and other crop production.
Objective 4: Quantify the post-harvest impacts of irrigation method and application amount and emerging management technologies on the marketability, demand, and competitiveness of U.S. peanuts (and other crops) in domestic and international markets.
Objective 5: Improved irrigation efficiency through the use of conservation tillage in West Texas peanut and cotton production systems.
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
Three irrigation methods will be compared, (sprinkler, sub-surface drip, surface drip), three irrigation rates (100%, 66%, 33%), and a non-irrigated control in six replicated rotation sequences including peanuts, cotton, corn, and grain sorghum. The design of these projects will provide direct comparisons to quantify the production and economic impacts of irrigation technologies for the selected crops. Plot data (precipitation, irrigation, soil temperature, soil moisture, wind speed and direction, and relative humidity) will be gathered. Data and information on production practices will be recorded and logged data. Samples from each replication within each treatment will be obtained for post-harvest quality analysis to relate production and management conditions to peanut yield, quality, and economic returns. Compare conservation tillage systems and conventional tillage systems with respect to different irrigation requirements to maximize profitability in a typical Southeastern crop rotation. Cover crop selection and management with regard to irrigation efficiency and pest populations will be an integral component, especially in the conservation tillage systems. Samples from each replication within each treatment will be processed consistent with industry standards for grading, shelling, and marketing. Federal State Inspection Service standards and yield data will be used to determine value per ton and value per acre. Samples will be shelled and processed utilizing commercial standards for peanut processing. Shelling efficiency measurements (technical and economic) will provide data on the impact of pre-harvest management practices through subsequent market channels. Economic efficiency of processing coupled with relevant peanut policy will provide data relating pre-harvest management practices to the final demand and competitiveness of U.S. peanut in domestic and international markets. This vertical systems approach will provide feedback through the market system to enhance the overall marketability of U.S. peanuts. The hypotheses will be tested by utilizing demand equations at subsequent processing levels and marketing segments of the industry incorporated with changes in processing efficiency resulting from each production practice. Hypotheses tested will address the impact of production practices (mainly irrigation and tillage) on post-harvest product quality, processing efficiency, and demand.
In excess of 40 peanut cultivars have been evaluated for potential as a biodiesel feedstock. Field evaluations have been expanded beyond National Peanut Research Laboratory to include locations in Florida, Alabama, Oklahoma, North Carolina, and 2 additional Georgia locations for a total of 8 sites. Construction of peanut biodiesel refinery was completed to allow cultivar analysis for peanut biodiesel and by product output. Completed sixth year of research into the effects of irrigation and tillage on peanut based cropping systems at the Hooks-Hanner Research Farm. Research was expanded to include analysis of plant physiological response in non-irrigated treatments (moisture deficit) as compared to well-watered peanut physiology. Year one of a multi-year investigation into the effects of rye cover crop management on peanut performance in reduced tillage was begun. Research was expanded to include year two of rotational-tillage study, year two of tillage and insecticide effects on incidence of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus of peanut, year two of sulfur and varietal effects on Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus in peanut, and year one of a multi-year sod-based biofuel crop rotation in support of the peanut biodiesel project. In addition to these larger, multi-year projects, approximately 5 smaller-scoped research projects were started looking at herbicide effects on new peanut cultivars (3) and cover crop management in reduced tillage peanut (2). Official “organic” certification was received for the organic section of the National Peanut Research Laboratory Multi-crop Irrigation Research Farm. This certification will allow research to be conducted as certified organic. This research project is in accord with two Agricultural Research Service Strategic Program Plans as follows: .
1)22.214.171.124 - Harvest/Postharvest Predictive Systems and.
2)126.96.36.199 - Integration.
This research addresses National Program 216 Agricultural System Competitiveness and Sustainability, Component 1 Agronomic Crop Production Systems, Problem 1A Strategies to reduce production cost and Problem 1B and National Program 213 Bioenergy, Component 3 Biorefining, Subcomponent 3c Biodiesel, Problem Statement 3c2 Biodiesel Production Processes and Problem Statement 3c5 Biodiesel co-products.
Irrigator Pro for Cotton and Irrigator Pro for Corn were released. These irrigation scheduling systems which recommend timing and amount of irrigation have been validated in several years of research. Irrigator Pro for Cotton, Corn, and Peanuts (released previously) were included in the Georgia Soil and Water Conservation Commissions, Conservation Incentive Program to facilitate technology transfer and promote improved irrigation scheduling in Georgia. Adoption by producers and crop consultants in all Georgia, Florida, and Alabama has exceeded expectations. Construction of peanut biodiesel refinery was completed and second year of field work in support of the peanut biodiesel project. Interest in this project is high with the number of visitors to the new facility in excess of 500 stakeholders. This refinery is uniquely designed to allow analysis of research scale peanuts in terms of output but also can be used to conduct through put studies to address the economic feasibility of on-farm peanut biodiesel refinement.
This accomplishments addresses National Program 216 Agricultural System Competitiveness and Sustainability, Component 1 Agronomic Crop Production Systems, Problem 1A Strategies to reduce production cost and Problem 1B and National Program 213 Bioenergy, Component 3 Biorefining, Subcomponent 3c Biodiesel, Problem Statement 3c2 Biodiesel Production Processes and Problem Statement 3c5 Biodiesel co-products.
5.Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations
|Number of Non-Peer Reviewed Presentations and Proceedings||4|
|Number of Newspaper Articles and Other Presentations for Non-Science Audiences||1|
Ferrell, J.A., Faircloth, W.H., Brecke, B.J., Macdonald, G.E. 2007. Influence of Cotton Size on Injury from Flumioxazin and Glyphosate Applied Post-Directed. Weed Technology. v 21. p 709-713.
Sanders, T.H., Dean, L.L., Lamb, M.C. 2006. Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) for 2005: Chemical, sensory and shelf-life properties by variety.. 188.8.131.52.
Zhu, H., Lan, Y., Lamb, M.C., Butts, C.L. 2007. Corn Nutritional Properties and Yields with Surface Drip Irrigation in Topographically Variable Fields. International Agricultural Engineering Journal. 9(9):1-10.
Sanders, T.H., Dean, L.L., Lamb, M.C. 2007. Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) for 2006: Shelling and physical properties. Plant Science.
Sanders, T.H., Dean, L.L., Lamb, M.C. 2008. Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) for 2007: Shelling and Physical Properties. Plant Science.