2007 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
Objective 1: Compare the impact of multiple irrigation methods at varying application amounts on profitability, yield, and quality of peanuts and selected crops grown in rotation with peanut.
Objective 2: Compare conservation tillage systems and conventional tillage systems with respect to different irrigation requirements to maximize profitability in a typical Southeastern crop rotation. Cover crop selection and management with regard to irrigation efficiency and pest populations will be an integral component, especially in the conservation tillage systems.
Objective 3: Develop and improve decision support systems to expedite technology transfer and adoption of emerging technologies related to peanut and other crop production.
Objective 4: Quantify the post-harvest impacts of irrigation method and application amount and emerging management technologies on the marketability, demand, and competitiveness of U.S. peanuts (and other crops) in domestic and international markets.
Objective 5: Improved irrigation efficiency through the use of conservation tillage in West Texas peanut and cotton production systems.
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
Three irrigation methods will be compared, (sprinkler, sub-surface drip, surface drip), three irrigation rates (100%, 66%, 33%), and a non-irrigated control in six replicated rotation sequences including peanuts, cotton, corn, and grain sorghum. The design of these projects will provide direct comparisons to quantify the production and economic impacts of irrigation technologies for the selected crops. Plot data (precipitation, irrigation, soil temperature, soil moisture, wind speed and direction, and relative humidity) will be gathered. Data and information on production practices will be recorded and logged data. Samples from each replication within each treatment will be obtained for post-harvest quality analysis to relate production and management conditions to peanut yield, quality, and economic returns. Compare conservation tillage systems and conventional tillage systems with respect to different irrigation requirements to maximize profitability in a typical Southeastern crop rotation. Cover crop selection and management with regard to irrigation efficiency and pest populations will be an integral component, especially in the conservation tillage systems. Samples from each replication within each treatment will be processed consistent with industry standards for grading, shelling, and marketing. Federal State Inspection Service standards and yield data will be used to determine value per ton and value per acre. Samples will be shelled and processed utilizing commercial standards for peanut processing. Shelling efficiency measurements (technical and economic) will provide data on the impact of pre-harvest management practices through subsequent market channels. Economic efficiency of processing coupled with relevant peanut policy will provide data relating pre-harvest management practices to the final demand and competitiveness of U.S. peanut in domestic and international markets. This vertical systems approach will provide feedback through the market system to enhance the overall marketability of U.S. peanuts. The hypotheses will be tested by utilizing demand equations at subsequent processing levels and marketing segments of the industry incorporated with changes in processing efficiency resulting from each production practice. Hypotheses tested will address the impact of production practices (mainly irrigation and tillage) on post-harvest product quality, processing efficiency, and demand.
A. Research from the NPRL Shellman Irrigation Research Farm was completed. Data supported the validation of Irrigator Pro for Cotton and Irrigator Pro for Corn and with minor revisions the validation is expected to be completed for release in 2008. Research into the organic production of peanuts and cotton was expanded in 2007. The organic portion of the Shellman Irrigation Research Farm received official organic certification in 2007 so the production research can be reported as Organic and not transitional. Direct comparisons of crop yield, quality, and production costs between organic and conventional production can be made to assist producers and processors.
B. Completed sixth year of research into the effects of irrigation and tillage on peanut based cropping systems at the Hooks-Hanner Research Farm. Research was expanded to included analysis of plant physiological response in the non-irrigated treatments (moisture deficit) as compared to well-watered peanut physiology. Year one of a multi-year investigation into the effects of rye cover crop management on peanut performance in reduced tillage was begun.
C. At stakeholder request a vertically integrated study was initiated to examine the technical and economic potential of peanuts as a feedstock for biodiesel. In excess of 30 peanut cultivars have been evaluated for potential as a biodiesel feedstock. Field evaluations have been expanded beyond NPRL to include two locations in Florida (Marianna, Jay), one location in Alabama (Headland), and one additional location in Georgia (Camilla) for a total of 5 field sites. Construction of a peanut biodiesel refinery was completed in support of the peanut biodiesel project and to conduct processing research.
D. Research was expanded to include year two of rotational-tillage study, year two of tillage and insecticide effects on incidence of TSWV of peanut, year one of sulfur and varietal effects on TSWV in peanut, and year one of a multi-year sod-based biofuel crop rotation in support of the peanut biodiesel project. In addition to these larger, multi-year projects, approximately 5 smaller-scoped research projects were started looking at herbicide effects on new peanut cultivars (3) and cover crop management in reduced tillage peanut (2).
Irrigation and organic production research: Data to complete the final validation of Irrigator Pro for Cotton and Irrigator Pro for Corn and was gathered to support the release of these decision support systems in 2008. After 2 years of research into the organic production of peanuts and cotton, the organic portion of the Shellman Irrigation Research Farm received official organic certification in 2007 so the production research can be reported as Organic and not transitional. Direct comparisons of crop yield, quality, and production costs between organic and conventional production can be made to assist producers and processors.
Peanut Bio-diesel projet successfully initiated: NPRL’s peanut biodiesel refinery and second year of production research in support of the peanut biodiesel project was completed. Stakeholder interest in this project has been significant with the number of visitors to the new facility in excess of 250 stakeholders. Completion of the refinery will expedite research from field studies as well as initiate research on optimal handling and processing procedures.
Farmer stock peanutgrading project completed: At industry request, a research project was conducted comparing a farmer stock peanut cleaner and sheller developed at NPRL with existing farmer stock grading equipment currently utilized by the Federal State Inspection Service. Over 600 paired samples from all US peanut producing regions were compared. The data demonstrated that the new farmer stock cleaner reduced sample cleaning time compared to the cleaner currently used. The new farmer stock sheller reduced shelling time but increased the amount of time required for hand picking to separate broken kernels from hulls and actually increased total shelling time. The results of the study indicated that the new farmer stock cleaner could offer a feasible solution to help FSIS improve cleaning efficiency. NP-306 Component 1. (Quality Characterization, Protection, and Enhancement): Problem Statement 1A/Objective 1A1.
5.Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations
|Number of non-peer reviewed presentations and proceedings||10|
|Number of newspaper articles and other presentations for non-science audiences||21|
Lamb, M.C., Rowland, D., Sorensen, R.B., Zhu, H., Blankenship, P.D., Butts, C.L. 2005. Impact of sprinkler irrigation amount and rotation on peanut yield. Peanut Science. 31:108-113