2009 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
(1) Investigate Biology, Behavior and Ecology of the Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB). (2) Investigate natural enemies to develop biological control technologies for the ALB.
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
1.1. Identify ecological and behavioral traits vulnerable to intervention and development of detection, monitoring, control and other IPM strategies: (a) based upon host selection, develop sentinel trees, artificial lures and Attract-and-Kill methods for detection of ALB; (b) based upon within tree host colonization behavior, develop protocols for utilizing fungal and insecticide band control methods; 1.2. Conduct studies of the process of invasion biology that will result in development of predictive spatiotemporal models (e.g. population spread, seasonal occurrence, population abundance and host colonization) for use in directing the implementation of IPM strategies for existing introductions, as well as for use in restricting establishment, proliferation and spread of future introductions; 1.3. Conduct studies for development of technologies for detection of trees infested by ALB, including acoustic detection. 2.1 In the Far East, we will identify promising candidate parasitoid species within their countries of origin, based upon bio-ecological studies, and evaluate their target and non-target impacts in quarantine. 2.2 we will also identify native North American natural enemies found parasitizing: (a) ALB within North American infestations; and (b) native cerambycid species most closely related to ALB and/or within ALB hosts. 2.3 for the most promising candidate species, we will: (a) develop mass rearing technology; (b) develop protocols for inundative releases or introduction; and (c) evaluate their impact on ALB and non-target species.
Continued exploration for native natural enemies of native woodborers as biocontrol agents of ALB. To date, results have shown four native natural enemy species parasitize and completed development on ALB. Most notably, results provided evidence that a specific parasitoid species parasitize ALB eggs and larvae, complete development through two generations and subsequently kill their ALB host. This is the first report of a native natural enemy of ALB outside of China.
Under an SCA with Simon Fraser University, ARS BIIR continued to develop an artificial attractant for early detection of ALB, including: (1) analysis of field studies showed significant attraction of male and female ALB to several artificial attractants; and (2) comparative analysis of host volatiles from four maple species was continued, providing preliminary evidence explaining the significant attractancy of ALB to Painted maple (Acer mono). The first in a series of manuscripts will be completed by close of CY09. In cooperation with Chinese colleagues, ARS BIIR completed a four (4) year field study evaluating the efficacy of an encapsulated insecticide to control adult ALB, showing that the insecticide can be used to suppression existing populations, as well as to protect healthy trees from attack. Two manuscripts documenting this research are ready for submission. In collaboration with Fondazione Minoprio and the Lombardy Plant Protection Agency, ARS BIIR initiated field evaluation of the encapsulated insecticide to control Citrus Longhorned Beetle in Italy. In collaboration with the Canadian Forest Service and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, ARS BIIR continued studies of the spatiotemporal process of invasion of ALB in the Toronto infestation. The first in a series of publications was submitted and is in press. Under an SCA with Cornell University, studies of the invasion biology of ALB were completed. Three manuscripts documenting this research were submitted and are in press. In cooperation with the US Forest Service, USDA BIIR initiated exploration for and evaluation of native natural enemies of ALB within the newly discovered invasive population in Worcester, Massachusetts.
Introductions of ALB into the US: Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB), a very serious invasive insect from China, attacks and kills many broadleaf trees in urban areas, including 9 species of maple (e.g. Norway maple, Silver maple, Sugar maple), and could potentially kill over 30% of all trees in urban and forested areas of the eastern U.S. Studies were conducted to determine the number of times ALB was introduced in the US. among the known infestations. Results suggested that most North American populations of ALB are the result of independent introductions. Regulatory agencies use this information to measure the effectiveness (quality control) of their eradication efforts to limit new introductions into the US.
Reproduction and Spread of an invasive ALB populations in North America: Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB), a very serious invasive insect from China, attacks and kills many broadleaf trees in urban areas, including 9 species of maple (e.g. Norway maple, Silver maple, Sugar maple), and could potentially kill over 30% of all trees in urban and forested areas of eastern U.S. ALB population spread has previously been investigated in China, and results successfully adopted by regulatory agencies (e.g. APHIS) for survey and control programs in North America and Europe. However, similar investigations within an actual infestation in North America is lacking and are needed to insure the results from the studies in China are representative of ALB population spread in North America. Results suggest that limited genetic diversity in the Ontario population has not hampered successful reproduction and of spread of an invasive population of ALB. Results were and continue to be used by regulatory agencies responsible for eradication of ALB in North America and Europe, and have implications to intentional introduction and establishment of natural enemies, as well as early detection of and survey protocols for invasive populations of ALB.
Painted maple found to be highly attractive to adult ALB. Asian Longhorned Beetle, ALB, a very serious invasive insect from China, attacks and kills many broadleaf trees in urban areas, including 9 species of maple, e.g. Norway maple, Silver maple, Sugar maple, and could potentially kill over 30 percent of all trees in urban and forested areas of eastern U.S. Early detection of ALB is paramount to preventing introduction, establishment and spread of ALB; is central to both an effective eradication program and post-eradication program; and is key to evaluating the efficacy of control approaches. ALB attraction to Painted maple, Acer mono, developed in this Project, has been successfully adopted by the California Department of Agriculture, CDFA, and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency for early detection of ALB. CDFA also used Painted maple in combination with the encapsulated insecticide developed in this Project, as an Attract-and-Kill strategy for detection of ALB. The chemicals produced by Painted maple trees that are responsible for the attraction of male and female ALB have been identified in this Project, and can be used to attract beetles to traps for detection of ALB. This artificial lure has the potential to significantly improve our ability to determine if, when and where beetles occur in the U.S., as well as to intercept beetles when they first arrive in the U.S., prevent their spread, and focus control efforts in areas where the beetle is already killing trees.
Models of ALB Population Spread and Adult Beetle Emergence. Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB), a very serious invasive insect from China, attacks and kills many broadleaf trees in urban areas, including 9 species of maple (e.g. Norway maple, Silver maple, Sugar maple), and could potentially kill over 30% of all trees in urban and forested areas of eastern U.S. Models of Population Spread (PSM) and Adult Beetle Emergence (AEM) were developed to provide methods for predicting the rate of spread of adult beetles and the period of time each year when adult beetles will be present in the environment. Both models have been used in ALB eradication programs in the US, Canada and Europe. At the request of stakeholders in the northeastern states at risk of ALB attack, we applied AEM to the appropriate 30yr historical weather database for many high-risk areas in each state and generated the predicted period of time during which adult ALB will be present. The AEM was applied in real time (2009) to the Worcester infestation and predictions were provided weekly to key regulatory agencies (e.g. USFS; State of MA; APHIS). Results were used by these state and federal stakeholder agencies for ALB management decisions.
Origin of the invasive ALB populations found infesting the US: Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB), a very serious invasive insect from China, attacks and kills many broadleaf trees in urban areas, including 9 species of maple (e.g. Norway maple, Silver maple, Sugar maple), and could potentially kill over 30% of all trees in urban and forested areas of the eastern U.S. Studies were conducted to determine where in China the ALB populations in New York, Chicago, New Jersey, Toronto and Europe originated. Results suggest that the ALB populations in North America and Europe likely originated from populations in China that are themselves invasive. Regulatory agencies use this information in establishing guidelines for survey and control strategies of the eradication program, insuring successful eradiation of ALB in the US.
|Number of Other Technology Transfer||4|
Hunter, W.B., Smith, M.T. 2009. Analysis and functional annotation of expressed sequence tags from the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis. Journal of Insect Science. 9:39.
Smith, M.T., Wu, J. 2009. Asian Longhorned Beetle: Renewed threat to north-eastern USA and implications worldwide. International Pest Control. 50(6):311-316.
Smith, M.T., Turgeon, J.J., Groot, P., Gasman, B. 2009. Asian Longhorned Beetle Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky): Lessons Learned and Opportunities to Improve the Process of Eradication and Management. American Entomologist. 55(1):21-25.